An diofar eadar na mùthaidhean a rinneadh air "Diphthongs"

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(Type B)
 
(9 mùthaidhean eadar-mheadhanach le 2 chleachdaiche eile nach eil 9 'gan sealltainn)
Loidhne 1: Loidhne 1:
Diphthongs are sequences of two vowels joined together to act as one (long) vowel sequence.  There are approximately 9 diphthongs in Gaelic.  We can divide these into two classes: (A) those which are spelled using two vowels, and (B) those which are spelled using a combination of vowels and consonants.
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Diphthongs are sequences of two vowels joined together to act as one, long vowel sequence.  There are approximately 9 diphthongs in Gaelic.  We can divide these into two classes: (A) those which are spelled using two vowels, and (B) those which are spelled using a combination of vowels and consonants.
  
 
==Type A==
 
==Type A==
  
[[File:diphthongs01.ogg|noicon|90px]]
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[[File:diphthongs01.mp3]]<br />
 
{| style="width: 50%;" border="0"
 
{| style="width: 50%;" border="0"
 
!colspan="3;" align="left" | <strong>[iə] from <span style="color: #008000;">ia</span></strong>
 
!colspan="3;" align="left" | <strong>[iə] from <span style="color: #008000;">ia</span></strong>
Loidhne 41: Loidhne 41:
 
<br />
 
<br />
 
{| style="width: 50%;" border="0"
 
{| style="width: 50%;" border="0"
!colspan="3;" align="left" | <strong>[ia] from <span style="color: #008000;">eu</span> Note: not all eu vowels are pronounced as diphthongs, e.g. Seumas where <span style="color: #008000;">eu</span> is pronounced as a long <span style="color: #008000;">é</span> [eː] sound</strong>
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!colspan="3;" align="left" | <strong>[ia] from <span style="color: #008000;">eu</span> Note: not all <span style="color: #008000;">eu</span> vowels are pronounced as diphthongs, e.g. Seumas where <span style="color: #008000;">eu</span> is pronounced as a long <span style="color: #008000;">é</span> [eː] sound</strong>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| '''[biaL]''' || <span style="color: #008000;">'''beul'''</span> || mouth
 
| '''[biaL]''' || <span style="color: #008000;">'''beul'''</span> || mouth
Loidhne 63: Loidhne 63:
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
 
  
 
==Type B==
 
==Type B==
These diphthongs occur before <span style="color: #008000;">ll, nn, m</span> and also before the fricatives <span style="color: #008000;">bh, mh, gh, dh</span> (in which case the fricatives are often silent).
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These diphthongs occur before <span style="color: #008000;">ll, nn, m</span> and also before the fricatives <span style="color: #008000;">bh, mh, gh, dh</span> in which case those fricatives are often silent.
  
 +
[[File:diphthongs02.mp3]]<br />
 
{| style="width: 50%;" border="0"
 
{| style="width: 50%;" border="0"
 
!colspan="3;" align="left" | <strong>[ai] from <span style="color: #008000;">ai</span></strong>
 
!colspan="3;" align="left" | <strong>[ai] from <span style="color: #008000;">ai</span></strong>
Loidhne 79: Loidhne 79:
 
| '''[ɣaiv]''' || <span style="color: #008000;">'''dhaibh'''</span> || to them
 
| '''[ɣaiv]''' || <span style="color: #008000;">'''dhaibh'''</span> || to them
 
|-
 
|-
| '''[taivʃə]''' || <span style="color: #008000;">'''taibhse'''</span> || ghost
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| '''[taiʃə]''' || <span style="color: #008000;">'''taibhse'''</span> || ghost
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
Loidhne 92: Loidhne 92:
 
|}
 
|}
 
<br />
 
<br />
The first part of the diphthong does not exist in English.  You can produce this sound by making an [o] and spreading your lips at the same time (as if you were grinning widely).
+
The first part of the diphthong does not exist in English.  You can produce this sound by making an [o] and spreading your lips at the same time, as if you were grinning widely.
 
{| style="width: 50%;" border="0"
 
{| style="width: 50%;" border="0"
 
!colspan="3;" align="left" | <strong>[ɤi] from <span style="color: #008000;">ei, ai, oi</span></strong>
 
!colspan="3;" align="left" | <strong>[ɤi] from <span style="color: #008000;">ei, ai, oi</span></strong>
Loidhne 115: Loidhne 115:
 
<br />
 
<br />
  
Like the last diphthong but the first part of the diphthong is like the unrounded form of [u].  Again, you can produce this sound by making an [u] and spreading your lips at the same time (as if you were grinning widely).  NB: Some dialects pronounce this sound like [ɤ].
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Like the last diphthong, but the first part of this diphthong is like the unrounded form of [u].  Again, you can produce this sound by making an [u] and spreading your lips at the same time, as if you were grinning widely.  NB: Some dialects pronounce this sound like [ɤ].
  
 
{| style="width: 50%;" border="0"
 
{| style="width: 50%;" border="0"
Loidhne 138: Loidhne 138:
 
|}
 
|}
 
<br />
 
<br />
 
a/ea  [au]
 
Similar to <ow> in <how>
 
cam kaum
 
call kauɫ̪
 
ball b̊auɫ̪
 
ann aun̴̪
 
rann r̴aun̴̪
 
bann b̊aun̴̪
 
lampa ɫ̪aumpə
 
samhradh sãũɾəɣ
 
ceann kʲaun̴̪
 
peann pjaun̴̪
 
teann tʲaun̴̪
 
geall g̊ʲauɫ̪
 
geamhradh g̊ʲãũɾəɣ
 
  
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{| style="width: 50%;" border="0"
[ɔu]
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!colspan="3;" align="left" | <strong>[au] from <span style="color: #008000;">a, ea</span></strong>
like <o> in Standard English <no>
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|-
tom t̪ɔum
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| '''[kaum]''' || <span style="color: #008000;">'''cam'''</span> || crooked
com kɔum
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|-
lom ɫ̪ɔum
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| '''[kauL]''' || <span style="color: #008000;">'''call'''</span> || loss
donn d̪̊ɔun̴̪
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|-
fonn fɔun̴̪
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| '''[bauL]''' || <span style="color: #008000;">'''ball'''</span> || member
bonn b̊ɔun̴̪
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|-
sonn sɔun̴̪
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| '''[ann]''' || <span style="color: #008000;">'''ann'''</span> || in him
toll t̪ɔuɫ̪
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|-
poll pɔuɫ̪
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| '''[RauN]''' || <span style="color: #008000;">'''rann'''</span> || verse
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|-
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| '''[bauN]''' || <span style="color: #008000;">'''bann'''</span> || band
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|-
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| '''[Lãũmbə]''' || <span style="color: #008000;">'''lampa'''</span> || lamp
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|-
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| '''[sãũrəɣ]''' || <span style="color: #008000;">'''samhradh'''</span> || summer
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|-
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| '''[kʲauN]''' || <span style="color: #008000;">'''ceann'''</span> || head
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|-
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| '''[pjauN]''' || <span style="color: #008000;">'''peann'''</span> || pen (n.)
 +
|-
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| '''[tʲauN]''' || <span style="color: #008000;">'''teann'''</span> || tight
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|-
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| '''[gʲauL]''' || <span style="color: #008000;">'''geall'''</span> || bet!
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|-
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| '''[gʲãũrəɣ]''' || <span style="color: #008000;">'''geamhradh'''</span> || winter
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|-
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|}
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<br />
  
Summary chart of Scottish Gaelic diphthongs:
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{| style="width: 50%;" border="0"
TYPE (A) ia
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!colspan="3;" align="left" | <strong>[ɔu] from <span style="color: #008000;">o</span></strong>
ua
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|-
ia eu
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| '''[tɔum]''' || <span style="color: #008000;">'''tom'''</span> || hillock
   
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|-
TYPE (B) ai aill, ainn, aibh
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| '''[kɔum]''' || <span style="color: #008000;">'''com'''</span> || torso
ei einn
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|-
ɤi oill, oinn, oim
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| '''[Lɔum]''' || <span style="color: #008000;">'''lom'''</span> || bare (adj.)
ɯi uinn, uim, uill, aoi(bh/mh/gh)
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|-
au (e)am, (e)ann, (e)all, (e)amh
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| '''[dɔuN]''' || <span style="color: #008000;">'''donn'''</span> || brown
ɔu onn, om, oll
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|-
 +
| '''[fɔuN]''' || <span style="color: #008000;">'''fonn'''</span> || melody
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|-
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| '''[bɔuN]''' || <span style="color: #008000;">'''bonn'''</span> || base
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|-
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| '''[sɔuN]''' || <span style="color: #008000;">'''sonn'''</span> || hero
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|-
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| '''[tɔuL]''' || <span style="color: #008000;">'''toll'''</span> || hole
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|-
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| '''[pɔuL]''' || <span style="color: #008000;">'''poll'''</span> || mud
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|-
 +
|}
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==Summary chart==
 +
 
 +
{| style="width: 50%;" border="0"
 +
!colspan="3;" align="left" | Summary chart of Scottish Gaelic diphthongs:
 +
|-
 +
| TYPE (A) || [] || <span style="color: #008000;">ia</span>
 +
|-
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| || [] || <span style="color: #008000;">ua</span>
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|-
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| || [ia] || <span style="color: #008000;">eu</span>
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|-
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| TYPE (B) || [ai] || <span style="color: #008000;">aill, ainn, aibh</span>
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|-
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| || [ei] || <span style="color: #008000;">einn</span>
 +
|-
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| || [ɤi] || <span style="color: #008000;">oill, oinn, oim</span>
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|-
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| || [ɯi] || <span style="color: #008000;">uinn, uim, uill, aoi(bh/mh/gh)</span>
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|-
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| || [au] || <span style="color: #008000;">(e)am, (e)ann, (e)all, (e)amh</span>
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|-
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| || [ɔu] || <span style="color: #008000;">onn, om, oll</span>
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|-
 +
|}
 +
 
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<br />
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<br />
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{{Fuaimean}}

Am mùthadh mu dheireadh on 17:23, 16 dhen Fhaoilleach 2016

Diphthongs are sequences of two vowels joined together to act as one, long vowel sequence. There are approximately 9 diphthongs in Gaelic. We can divide these into two classes: (A) those which are spelled using two vowels, and (B) those which are spelled using a combination of vowels and consonants.

Type A

Download

[iə] from ia
[iəR] iarr demand!
[kʲiəL] ciall sense (n.)
[Lʲiə] liath grey (adj.)
[biəɣ] biadh food
[fiəɣ] fiadh deer
[iəRɪ] iarraidh wanting


[uə] from ua
[fuər] fuar cold
[guəL] gual coal
[kLuəs] cluas ear
[sguəb] sguab brush!
[tuəɣ] tuagh axe (n.)
[duəʃ] duais prize
[buəj] buaidh impact (n.)


[ia] from eu Note: not all eu vowels are pronounced as diphthongs, e.g. Seumas where eu is pronounced as a long é [eː] sound
[biaL] beul mouth
[kʲiad] ceud hundred
[fiar] feur grass
[gʲiar] geur sharp


Note: eum is usually pronounced as é [eː]
[Lʲeːm] leum jump!
[kʲeːm] ceum step (n.)
[beːm] beum stroke

Type B

These diphthongs occur before ll, nn, m and also before the fricatives bh, mh, gh, dh in which case those fricatives are often silent.

Download

[ai] from ai
[kaiLʲ] caill lose!
[saiLʲ] saill salt!
[kaiNʲdʲ] cainnt speech
[ɣaiv] dhaibh to them
[taiʃə] taibhse ghost


[ei] from ei
[ʃeiNʲ] seinn sing!
[beiNʲ] beinn mountain


The first part of the diphthong does not exist in English. You can produce this sound by making an [o] and spreading your lips at the same time, as if you were grinning widely.

[ɤi] from ei, ai, oi
[mɤiLʲ] moill delay (n.)
[kɤiLʲdʲən] coilltean forests
[sɤiLʲʃɪç] soillsich enlighten!
[LɤiNʲ] loinn elegance
[brɤim] broim fart (n.)
[grʲɤim] greim grip (n.)
[sɤidʲɛr] saighdear soldier
[mɤidʲan] maighdean maiden


Like the last diphthong, but the first part of this diphthong is like the unrounded form of [u]. Again, you can produce this sound by making an [u] and spreading your lips at the same time, as if you were grinning widely. NB: Some dialects pronounce this sound like [ɤ].

[ɯi] from ui, aoi
[krɯiNʲ] cruinn round
[drɯim] druim ridge
[sɯim] suim sum (n.)
[tɯiLʲ] tuill holes
[krɯiv] craoibh tree (dative)
[Nɯiv] naoimh saints
[Lɯij] laoigh calf (genitive)
[mrɯ͂ĩ] mnaoi wife (dative)


[au] from a, ea
[kaum] cam crooked
[kauL] call loss
[bauL] ball member
[ann] ann in him
[RauN] rann verse
[bauN] bann band
[Lãũmbə] lampa lamp
[sãũrəɣ] samhradh summer
[kʲauN] ceann head
[pjauN] peann pen (n.)
[tʲauN] teann tight
[gʲauL] geall bet!
[gʲãũrəɣ] geamhradh winter


[ɔu] from o
[tɔum] tom hillock
[kɔum] com torso
[Lɔum] lom bare (adj.)
[dɔuN] donn brown
[fɔuN] fonn melody
[bɔuN] bonn base
[sɔuN] sonn hero
[tɔuL] toll hole
[pɔuL] poll mud

Summary chart

Summary chart of Scottish Gaelic diphthongs:
TYPE (A) [iə] ia
[uə] ua
[ia] eu
TYPE (B) [ai] aill, ainn, aibh
[ei] einn
[ɤi] oill, oinn, oim
[ɯi] uinn, uim, uill, aoi(bh/mh/gh)
[au] (e)am, (e)ann, (e)all, (e)amh
[ɔu] onn, om, oll



Fuaimean na Gàidhlig
Vowels - Consonants - Fricatives - Slenderisation - Pre-aspiration - Lenition - Helping vowel - Diphthongs
Hiatus - l n r - rt & rd - Vowels before rr ll nn - Unstressed vowels