An diofar eadar na mùthaidhean a rinneadh air "PPP - Pronouns, prepositions and their pronunciation"

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(Ri)
 
(Rinn an cleachdaiche 9 mùthaidhean eadar-mheadhanach nach eil 9 'gan sealltainn)
Loidhne 7: Loidhne 7:
 
For the most part, they're arranged in groups according to their first element, for example, for mu choinneimh, look under mu.
 
For the most part, they're arranged in groups according to their first element, for example, for mu choinneimh, look under mu.
  
How to remember them? Wellll... I get asked that a lot. I've [[Prepositions made easier|tried]] but it may not be everyone's cup of sùgh an eòrna - but just in case.
+
How to remember them? Wellll... I get asked that a lot. [[Prepositions made easier|I've tried]] but it may not be everyone's cup of sùgh an eòrna - but just in case.
  
 
==<span style="color: #008000;">À</span>==
 
==<span style="color: #008000;">À</span>==
Loidhne 152: Loidhne 152:
 
| <span style="color: #008000;">de</span> || [də]  
 
| <span style="color: #008000;">de</span> || [də]  
 
|-
 
|-
| <span style="color: #008000;">dhen</span> || [ʝɛnəN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>]
+
| <span style="color: #008000;">dhen / dhen an</span> || [ʝɛN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>] / [ʝɛnəN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| <span style="color: #008000;">dhìom</span> || [ʝĩə̃m]
 
| <span style="color: #008000;">dhìom</span> || [ʝĩə̃m]
Loidhne 171: Loidhne 171:
  
 
==<span style="color: #008000;">Do</span>==
 
==<span style="color: #008000;">Do</span>==
{| style="width: 15%;" border="0"
+
{| style="width: 20%;" border="0"
 
|-
 
|-
 
| <span style="color: #008000;">do</span> || [də]  
 
| <span style="color: #008000;">do</span> || [də]  
 
|-
 
|-
| <span style="color: #008000;">dhan (an)</span> || [ɣan], [ɣanəN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>]
+
| <span style="color: #008000;">dhan / dhan an</span> || [ɣaN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>], [ɣanəN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|
 
|
Loidhne 217: Loidhne 217:
 
| <span style="color: #008000;">fo</span> || [fɔ]  
 
| <span style="color: #008000;">fo</span> || [fɔ]  
 
|-
 
|-
| <span style="color: #008000;">fon</span> || [fɔnəN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>]
+
| <span style="color: #008000;">fon / fon an</span> || [fɔN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>] / [fɔnəN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|
 
|
Loidhne 292: Loidhne 292:
 
| <span style="color: #008000;">mu</span> || [mə]  
 
| <span style="color: #008000;">mu</span> || [mə]  
 
|-
 
|-
| <span style="color: #008000;">mun</span> || [munəN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>]
+
| <span style="color: #008000;">mun / mun an</span> || [muN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>] / [munəN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|
 
|
Loidhne 317: Loidhne 317:
 
| <span style="color: #008000;">o</span> || [ɔ]  
 
| <span style="color: #008000;">o</span> || [ɔ]  
 
|-
 
|-
| <span style="color: #008000;">on</span> || [ɔnəN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>]
+
| <span style="color: #008000;">on / on an</span> || [ɔN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>] / [ɔnəN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|
 
|
Loidhne 338: Loidhne 338:
  
 
==<span style="color: #008000;">Ri</span>==
 
==<span style="color: #008000;">Ri</span>==
 +
[[Ri|More about ''ri'']]
 
{| style="width: 15%;" border="0"
 
{| style="width: 15%;" border="0"
 
|-
 
|-
Loidhne 367: Loidhne 368:
 
| <span style="color: #008000;">tro</span> || [trɔ]  
 
| <span style="color: #008000;">tro</span> || [trɔ]  
 
|-
 
|-
| <span style="color: #008000;">tron an</span> || [trɔnəN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>]
+
| <span style="color: #008000;">tron / tron an</span> || [trɔN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>] / [trɔnəN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|
 
|

Am mùthadh mu dheireadh on 12:36, 13 dhen Ghiblean 2017

In this section we'll try to give you a fairly comprehensive overview of the Gaelic prepositions - including some of the more obscure issues and a fresh view on some old friends.

But before we start, a quick anecdote about rules in language.

Linguists will tell you that some languages are PRO-drop languages and some are not. PRO stands for 'pronoun' and PRO-drop means that in some languages you're permitted to drop the pronoun in a sentence. Generally, this is allowed because the verb alone already marks the grammatical person (i.e. you, me, he, they etc.). Spanish is a PRO-drop language in which you can either say yo tengo una cebra or tengo una cebra and both mean "I have a zebra." On the other hand, linguists will tell you that English is not a PRO-drop language, never ever, ever. Or is it? This morning, I asked my partner a question: "have you ever used the word "prune" as an insult?" The answer came straight back: "might have done". Can YOU see a pronoun anywhere? I can't. Anyway, this isn't a blog, but I thought I'd remind us all that languages are unruly things. While there are rules that you can learn and follow, they rarely apply in 100% of cases. Still, 99% isn't bad either, is it?

For the most part, they're arranged in groups according to their first element, for example, for mu choinneimh, look under mu.

How to remember them? Wellll... I get asked that a lot. I've tried but it may not be everyone's cup of sùgh an eòrna - but just in case.

À

à [a]
às an [as əN(ʲ)]
asam [asəm]
asad [asəd]
às [as]
aiste [aʃdʲə]
asainn [asɪNʲ]
asaibh [asɪv]
asta [asdə]

Aig

aig [ɛgʲ]
aig an [ɛgʲ əN(ʲ)]
agam [agəm]
agad [agəd]
aige [ɛgʲə]
aice [ɛçgʲə]
againn [agɪNʲ]
agaibh [agɪv]
aca [axgə]

Aig + possessive pronoun

'gam [gam]
'gad [gəd]
'ga [ga]
'ga (h-) [ga (h)]
'gar (n-) [gar (n)]
'gur (n-) [gar (n)]
'gan [gan]

Air

air [ɛrʲ]
air an [ɛrʲ əN(ʲ)]
orm [ɔrɔm]
ort [ɔRʃd]
air [ɛrʲ]
oirre [ɔRə]
oirnn [ɔːRNʲ]
oirbh [ɔrʲɪv]
orra [ɔRə]

Ann an

More about ann an

ann an [ãũN əN(ʲ)]
anns an [ãũNs əN(ʲ)]
annam [ũNəm]
annad [ũNəd]
ann [ãũN]
innte [ĩːNʲdʲə]
annainn [aNɪNʲ]
annaibh [aNɪv]
annta [ãũNdə]

Ann an + possessive pronoun

'nam [nam]
'nad [nad]
'na [na]
'na (h-) [na (h)]
'nar (n-) [nar (n)]
'nur (n-) [nar (n)]
'nan [nan]

De

More about de

de [də]
dhen / dhen an [ʝɛN(ʲ)] / [ʝɛnəN(ʲ)]
dhìom [ʝĩə̃m]
dhìot [ʝied]
dheth [ʝe]
dhith [ʝi]
dhinn [ʝĩNʲ]
dhibh [ʝiv]
dhiubh [ʝu]

Do

do [də]
dhan / dhan an [ɣaN(ʲ)], [ɣanəN(ʲ)]
dhomh [ɣɔ̃]
dhut [ɣuhd]
dha [ɣa]
dhi [ʝi]
dhuinn [ɣɯ̃ĩNʲ]
dhuibh [ɣɯiv]
dhaibh [ɣaiv]

Eadar

eadar [edər]
eadar an [edər əN(ʲ)]
eadarainn [edərɪNʲ]
eadaraibh [edərɪv]
eatarra [ehdəRə]

Fo

fo [fɔ]
fon / fon an [fɔN(ʲ)] / [fɔnəN(ʲ)]
fodham [fo.əm]
fodhad [fo.əd]
fodha [fo.ə]
foidhpe [foihbə]
fodhainn [fo.ɪNʲ]
fodhaibh [fo.ɪv]
fodhpa [fohbə]

Gu

gu [gu]
gun
chun an
[gunəN(ʲ)]
[xunəN(ʲ)]
thugam [hugəm]
thugad [hugəd]
thuige [hɯgʲə]
thuice [hɯçgʲə]
thugainn [hugɪNʲ]
thugaibh [hugɪv]
thuca [huxgə]

Le

le [le]
leis an [leʃ əN(ʲ)]
leam [ləm]
leat [lahd]
leis [leʃ]
leatha [le.ə]
leinn [lẽĩNʲ]
leibh [leiv]
leotha [lo.ə]

Mu

mu [mə]
mun / mun an [muN(ʲ)] / [munəN(ʲ)]
umam [ũməm]
umad [ũməd]
uime [ɯ̃imə]
uimpe [ɯ̃imbə]
umainn [ũmɪNʲ]
umaibh [ũmɪv]
umpa [ũːmbə]

O

o [ɔ]
on / on an [ɔN(ʲ)] / [ɔnəN(ʲ)]
uam [uəm]
uat [uəhd]
uaidhe [uajə]
uaipe [uəihbə]
uainn [ũə̃ĩNʲ]
uaibh [uəiv]
uapa [uəhbə]

Ri

More about ri

ri [rʲi]
ris an [rʲiʃ əN(ʲ)]
rium [rʲum]
riut [rʲuʰd]
ris [rʲiʃ]
rithe [rʲi.ə]
r(u)inn [rɯ̃ĩNʲ]
r(u)ibh [rɯiv]
riutha [ru.ə]

Tro

tro [trɔ]
tron / tron an [trɔN(ʲ)] / [trɔnəN(ʲ)]
tromham [trɔ.əm]
tromhad [trɔ.əd]
troimhe [trɔjə]
troimhpe [trɔihbə]
tromhainn [trɔ.ɪNʲ]
tromhaibh [trɔ.ɪv]
tromhpa [trɔ̃hbə]

Thar

thar [har]
thar an [har əN(ʲ)]
tharam [harəm]
tharad [harəd]
thairis air [harʲɪʃ ɛrʲ]
thairte [haRʃdʲə]
tharainn [harɪNʲ]
tharaibh [harɪv]
tharta [haRʃdə]

Personal pronouns

mi [mĩː] [mi]
thu
tu
[uː]
[duː]
[u]
[du]
e [ɛː] [ə]
i [iː] [i]
sinn [ʃiːNʲ] [ʃiNʲ]
sibh [ʃiːv] [ʃiv]
iad [iəd] [əd]

Personal pronouns with emphatic suffixes

mise [mĩʃə]
thusa
tusa
[usə]
[dusə]
esan [ɛsən]
ise [iʃə]
sinne [ʃiNʲə]
sibhse [ʃiːvʃə]
iadsan [iədsən]

Possessive pronoun

mo chù [mə'xuː]
do chù [də'xuː]
a chù [ə'xuː]
a cù [ə'kuː]
ar cù [ər'kuː]
ur cù [ər'kuː]
an cù [əŋ'kuː]

Possessive pronoun with emphatic suffixes

mo chù-sa [mə'xuːsə]
do chù-sa [də'xuːsə ]
a chù-san [ə'xuːsən]
a cù-se [ə'kuːʃə]
ar cù-ne [ər'kuːnə]
ur cù-se [ər'kuːʃə]
an cù-san [ən'kuːsən]

Possessive pronoun with initial vowel

m' anam [manam]
d' anam [danam]
anam [anam]
a h-anam [ə'hanam]
ar n-anam [ər'nanam]
ur n-anam [ər'nanam]
an anam [ə'nanam]

Possessive pronoun with initial vowel and emphatic suffixes

m' anam-sa [manamsə]
d' anam-sa [danamsə]
anam-san [anamsən]
a h-anam-se [ə'hanamʃə]
ar n-anam-ne [ər'nanamnə]
ur n-anam-se [ər'nanamʃə]
an anam-san [ə'nanamsən]



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