PPP - Pronouns, prepositions and their pronunciation

O Goireasan Akerbeltz
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Gearr leum gu: seòladh, lorg

In this section we'll try to give you a fairly comprehensive overview of the Gaelic prepositions - including some of the more obscure issues and a fresh view on some old friends.

But before we start, a quick anecdote about rules in language.

Linguists will tell you that some languages are PRO-drop languages and some are not. PRO stands for 'pronoun' and PRO-drop means that in some languages you're permitted to drop the pronoun in a sentence. Generally, this is allowed because the verb alone already marks the grammatical person (i.e. you, me, he, they etc.). Spanish is a PRO-drop language in which you can either say yo tengo una cebra or tengo una cebra and both mean "I have a zebra." On the other hand, linguists will tell you that English is not a PRO-drop language, never ever, ever. Or is it? This morning, I asked my partner a question: "have you ever used the word "prune" as an insult?" The answer came straight back: "might have done". Can YOU see a pronoun anywhere? I can't. Anyway, this isn't a blog, but I thought I'd remind us all that languages are unruly things. While there are rules that you can learn and follow, they rarely apply in 100% of cases. Still, 99% isn't bad either, is it?

For the most part, they're arranged in groups according to their first element, for example, for mu choinneimh, look under mu.

How to remember them? Wellll... I get asked that a lot. I've tried but it may not be everyone's cup of sùgh an eòrna - but just in case.

À

à [a]
às an [as əN(ʲ)]
asam [asəm]
asad [asəd]
às [as]
aiste [aʃdʲə]
asainn [asɪNʲ]
asaibh [asɪv]
asta [asdə]

Aig

aig [ɛgʲ]
aig an [ɛgʲ əN(ʲ)]
agam [agəm]
agad [agəd]
aige [ɛgʲə]
aice [ɛçgʲə]
againn [agɪNʲ]
agaibh [agɪv]
aca [axgə]

Aig + possessive pronoun

'gam [gam]
'gad [gəd]
'ga [ga]
'ga (h-) [ga (h)]
'gar (n-) [gar (n)]
'gur (n-) [gar (n)]
'gan [gan]

Air

air [ɛrʲ]
air an [ɛrʲ əN(ʲ)]
orm [ɔrɔm]
ort [ɔRʃd]
air [ɛrʲ]
oirre [ɔRə]
oirnn [ɔːRNʲ]
oirbh [ɔrʲɪv]
orra [ɔRə]

Ann an

More about ann an

ann an [ãũN əN(ʲ)]
anns an [ãũNs əN(ʲ)]
annam [ũNəm]
annad [ũNəd]
ann [ãũN]
innte [ĩːNʲdʲə]
annainn [aNɪNʲ]
annaibh [aNɪv]
annta [ãũNdə]

Ann an + possessive pronoun

'nam [nam]
'nad [nad]
'na [na]
'na (h-) [na (h)]
'nar (n-) [nar (n)]
'nur (n-) [nar (n)]
'nan [nan]

De

More about de

de [də]
dhen / dhen an [ʝɛN(ʲ)] / [ʝɛnəN(ʲ)]
dhìom [ʝĩə̃m]
dhìot [ʝied]
dheth [ʝe]
dhith [ʝi]
dhinn [ʝĩNʲ]
dhibh [ʝiv]
dhiubh [ʝu]

Do

do [də]
dhan / dhan an [ɣaN(ʲ)], [ɣanəN(ʲ)]
dhomh [ɣɔ̃]
dhut [ɣuhd]
dha [ɣa]
dhi [ʝi]
dhuinn [ɣɯ̃ĩNʲ]
dhuibh [ɣɯiv]
dhaibh [ɣaiv]

Eadar

eadar [edər]
eadar an [edər əN(ʲ)]
eadarainn [edərɪNʲ]
eadaraibh [edərɪv]
eatarra [ehdəRə]

Fo

fo [fɔ]
fon / fon an [fɔN(ʲ)] / [fɔnəN(ʲ)]
fodham [fo.əm]
fodhad [fo.əd]
fodha [fo.ə]
foidhpe [foihbə]
fodhainn [fo.ɪNʲ]
fodhaibh [fo.ɪv]
fodhpa [fohbə]

Gu

gu [gu]
gun
chun an
[gunəN(ʲ)]
[xunəN(ʲ)]
thugam [hugəm]
thugad [hugəd]
thuige [hɯgʲə]
thuice [hɯçgʲə]
thugainn [hugɪNʲ]
thugaibh [hugɪv]
thuca [huxgə]

Le

le [le]
leis an [leʃ əN(ʲ)]
leam [ləm]
leat [lahd]
leis [leʃ]
leatha [le.ə]
leinn [lẽĩNʲ]
leibh [leiv]
leotha [lo.ə]

Mu

mu [mə]
mun / mun an [muN(ʲ)] / [munəN(ʲ)]
umam [ũməm]
umad [ũməd]
uime [ɯ̃imə]
uimpe [ɯ̃imbə]
umainn [ũmɪNʲ]
umaibh [ũmɪv]
umpa [ũːmbə]

O

o [ɔ]
on / on an [ɔN(ʲ)] / [ɔnəN(ʲ)]
uam [uəm]
uat [uəhd]
uaidhe [uajə]
uaipe [uəihbə]
uainn [ũə̃ĩNʲ]
uaibh [uəiv]
uapa [uəhbə]

Ri

More about ri

ri [rʲi]
ris an [rʲiʃ əN(ʲ)]
rium [rʲum]
riut [rʲuʰd]
ris [rʲiʃ]
rithe [rʲi.ə]
r(u)inn [rɯ̃ĩNʲ]
r(u)ibh [rɯiv]
riutha [ru.ə]

Tro

tro [trɔ]
tron / tron an [trɔN(ʲ)] / [trɔnəN(ʲ)]
tromham [trɔ.əm]
tromhad [trɔ.əd]
troimhe [trɔjə]
troimhpe [trɔihbə]
tromhainn [trɔ.ɪNʲ]
tromhaibh [trɔ.ɪv]
tromhpa [trɔ̃hbə]

Thar

thar [har]
thar an [har əN(ʲ)]
tharam [harəm]
tharad [harəd]
thairis air [harʲɪʃ ɛrʲ]
thairte [haRʃdʲə]
tharainn [harɪNʲ]
tharaibh [harɪv]
tharta [haRʃdə]

Personal pronouns

mi [mĩː] [mi]
thu
tu
[uː]
[duː]
[u]
[du]
e [ɛː] [ə]
i [iː] [i]
sinn [ʃiːNʲ] [ʃiNʲ]
sibh [ʃiːv] [ʃiv]
iad [iəd] [əd]

Personal pronouns with emphatic suffixes

mise [mĩʃə]
thusa
tusa
[usə]
[dusə]
esan [ɛsən]
ise [iʃə]
sinne [ʃiNʲə]
sibhse [ʃiːvʃə]
iadsan [iədsən]

Possessive pronoun

mo chù [mə'xuː]
do chù [də'xuː]
a chù [ə'xuː]
a cù [ə'kuː]
ar cù [ər'kuː]
ur cù [ər'kuː]
an cù [əŋ'kuː]

Possessive pronoun with emphatic suffixes

mo chù-sa [mə'xuːsə]
do chù-sa [də'xuːsə ]
a chù-san [ə'xuːsən]
a cù-se [ə'kuːʃə]
ar cù-ne [ər'kuːnə]
ur cù-se [ər'kuːʃə]
an cù-san [ən'kuːsən]

Possessive pronoun with initial vowel

m' anam [manam]
d' anam [danam]
anam [anam]
a h-anam [ə'hanam]
ar n-anam [ər'nanam]
ur n-anam [ər'nanam]
an anam [ə'nanam]

Possessive pronoun with initial vowel and emphatic suffixes

m' anam-sa [manamsə]
d' anam-sa [danamsə]
anam-san [anamsən]
a h-anam-se [ə'hanamʃə]
ar n-anam-ne [ər'nanamnə]
ur n-anam-se [ər'nanamʃə]
an anam-san [ə'nanamsən]



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