An diofar eadar na mùthaidhean a rinneadh air "Prepositions made easier"

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(Regular)
 
(7 mùthaidhean eadar-mheadhanach le 2 chleachdaiche eile nach eil 7 'gan sealltainn)
Loidhne 1: Loidhne 1:
Tricky one. They are very old words/forms and it's been a long time since they they were first formed, involving things like the Old Irish accusative which have been dead for a long time now, so there is no foolproof way of giving you a simple guide which tells you how you can just form them on the spot.
+
Tricky one. They are very old words/forms. It's been a long time since they were first formed and they involve things, like the Old Irish accusative, which have been dead for a long time. So, there's no foolproof way of giving you a simple guide which tells you how you can just form them on the spot.
  
There's a few pointers that we can give you though.
+
However, there are a few pointers that we can give you.
  
Broadly speaking you can group modern Gaelic preposition into 5 categories - Regular, Mostly Regular, 3rd Person S, Labial in Root and Decidedly Weird. We have grouped them this way because this then allows you to learn them in groups and perhaps memorise some of rules.  We'll also explain their history further down which may also help some of you to understand these pesky little buggers.
+
Broadly speaking, you can group modern Gaelic preposition into 5 categories - Regular, Mostly Regular, 3rd Person S, Labial in Root, and Decidedly Weird. We have grouped them this way because this allows you to learn them in groups and perhaps memorise some of rules.  We'll also explain their history further down and historical explanation may also help some of you to understand these pesky little buggers.
  
 
==Regular==
 
==Regular==
Loidhne 53: Loidhne 53:
  
 
==Mostly Regular==
 
==Mostly Regular==
Group & Endings
+
{| style="width: 30%;" border="0"
analysed preposition normal form
+
! align="left" | Root
 +
! align="left" | Analysed preposition
 +
! align="left" | Full form
 +
|-
 +
| ann- || -(a)m || annam
 +
|-
 +
| ann- || -(a)d/t || annad
 +
|-
 +
| ann- || same as root || ann
 +
|-
 +
| ann- || slenderise, -(t)e || innte
 +
|-
 +
| ann- || -(a)inn || annainn
 +
|-
 +
| ann- || -(a)ibh || annaibh
 +
|-
 +
| ann- || -(t)a || annta
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
MOSTLY REGULAR
+
Following the same pattern:
ROOT: ann- ann an
 
  
-(a)m
+
{| style="width: 30%;" border="0"
-(a)d/-(a)t
+
! align="left" | Root
ROOT
+
! align="left" | Analysed preposition
-(th)e + slenderise
+
! align="left" | Full form
-(a)inn
+
|-
-(a)ibh
+
| ann-<br/>dhì- || -(a)m || orm<br/>dhìom
-(th)a
+
|-
ann-am
+
| ann-<br/>dhì-|| -(a)d/t || ort<br/>dhìot
ann-ad
+
|-
ann
+
| ann-<br/>dhì-|| same as root || air<br/>(irr.) dheth
inn-te
+
|-
ann-ainn
+
| ann-<br/>dhì-|| slenderise, -(t)e || oirre<br/>(irr.) dhith
ann-aibh
+
|-
ann-ta annam
+
| ann-<br/>dhì-|| -(a)inn || oirnn<br/>dhinn
annad
+
|-
ann
+
| ann-<br/>dhì-|| -(a)ibh || oirbh<br/>dhibh
innte
+
|-
annainn
+
| ann-<br/>dhì-|| -(t)a || orra<br/>dhiubh
annaibh
+
|-
annta
+
|}
   
 
  ROOT: or- air
 
 
 
 
 
or-m
 
or-t
 
air
 
oir-the
 
oir-inn
 
oir-ibh
 
or-tha
 
 
  
orm
+
The most striking feature of this group is that it uses the root form for the 3rd person singular masculine. The other bit to watch out for with air is that the root slenderises in the plural. And we get innte because the root used to be int-. But more of the history later.
ort
 
air
 
oirre (<oirrthe)
 
oirnn
 
oirbh (<oiribh)
 
orra (<orrtha)
 
   
 
 
 
  
ROOT: dhi-
+
The prepositions in brackets are other/older spellings of these that are still kicking about. They fit the paradigm much better, although GOC abolished them, so non-nonchalantly. <sigh>
 
 
 
de
 
 
 
 
 
dhi-am
 
dhi-at
 
dh-e
 
dhi-(th)
 
dhi-(i)nn
 
dhi-(i)bh
 
dhiubh
 
 
 
 
dhiom
 
dhiot
 
dhe
 
dhi (<dhith)
 
dhinn
 
dhibh
 
dhiubh
 
 
 
The most striking feature of this group is that it uses the root form for the 3rd person singular masculine.  The other bit to watch out for with air is that in the plural the root slenderises.  And we get innte because the root used to be int-.  But more of the history later.
 
 
 
The prepositions in brackets are other/older spellings of these still kicking about which fit the paradigm much better and which GOC abolished so non-nonchalantly. <sigh>
 
  
 +
==3rd Person s==
 
The next group is also fairly regular, but different because the 3rd person singular masculine adds an -s to the root:
 
The next group is also fairly regular, but different because the 3rd person singular masculine adds an -s to the root:
  
+
{| style="width: 30%;" border="0"
 
+
! align="left" | Root
Group & Endings
+
! align="left" | Analysed preposition
analysed preposition normal form
+
! align="left" | Full form
 
+
|-
MOSTLY REGULAR
+
| as-<br/>le-<br/>ri-<br/>thar- || -(a)m || asam<br/>leam<br/>rium<br/>tharam
ROOT: as- á
+
|-
 
+
| as-<br/>le-<br/>ri-<br/>thar- || -(a)d/t || asad<br/>leat<br/>riut<br/>tharad
-(a)m
+
|-
-(a)d/-(a)t
+
| as-<br/>le-<br/>ri-<br/>thair- || ROOT + [ʃ] || (irr.) ás<br/>leis<br/>ris<br/>thairis
ROOT + [ʃ]
+
|-
-(th)e + slenderise
+
| as-<br/>le-<br/>ri-<br/>thair- || slenderise, -the/-te || aiste<br/>(irr.) leatha (cf Irish léi)<br/>rithe<br/>thairte
-(a)inn
+
|-
-(a)ibh
+
| as-<br/>le-<br/>ri-<br/>thar- || -(a)inn || asainn<br/>leinn<br/>r(u)inn<br/>tharainn
-(th)a
+
|-
+
| as-<br/>le-<br/>ri-<br/>thar- || -(a)ibh || asaibh<br/>leibh<br/>r(u)ibh<br/>tharaibh
 
+
|-
as-am
+
| as-<br/>le-<br/>ri-<br/>thar- || -(t)a/-(th)a || asta<br/>leotha<br/>riutha<br/>tharta
as-ad
+
|-
as-(s)
+
|}
ais-te
 
as-ainn
 
as-aibh
 
as-ta
 
 
 
 
asam
 
asad
 
as
 
aiste
 
asainn
 
asaibh
 
asta
 
   
 
  ROOT: le- le
 
 
 
 
 
le-am
 
le-at
 
le-is
 
lei-the
 
le-inn
 
le-ibh
 
leo-tha
 
 
 
 
leam
 
leat
 
leis
 
leatha (cf léithe)
 
leinn
 
leibh
 
leotha
 
   
 
  ROOT: ri- ri
 
 
 
  
ri-am
+
As you can see, this bunch is mostly regular except for ás, which has [s] instead of the expected [ʃ]. Historically, the root of ás was ás, not á, so you would have said tha mi ás Alba, thoir ás a' bhogsa e. But at some point, the -s was re-interpreted as the -s that appears in the other prepositions, like le > leis. Thus, the "new root" á was born which led to the pattern tha mi á Alba and thoir ás a' bhogsa e.
ri-at
+
The pronunciation of aiste is /aʃtʃə/ because -s was organic and it followed the normal rules on palatalisation.  The 3rd person singular feminine, leatha, is a bit weird. However, the older Irish form, léithe, fits the paradigm perfectly - not that that's any consolation to us. Again, i gets inserted so the caol ri caol rule isn't broken.
ri-(i)s
 
ri-the
 
ri-(i)nn
 
ri-(ibh)
 
riu-tha
 
 
 
 
rium
 
riut
 
ris
 
rithe
 
ruinn (<rinn)
 
ruibh (<ribh)
 
riutha
 
   
 
  ROOT: thar- thar
 
 
 
 
 
thar-am
 
thar-ad
 
thair-is
 
thair-te
 
thar-ainn
 
thar-aibh
 
thar-ta
 
 
 
 
tharam
 
tharad
 
thairis (air)
 
thairte
 
tharainn
 
tharaibh
 
tharta
 
 
 
As you can see, this bunch is mostly regular except for ás, which has [s] instead of the expected [ʃ] and the 3rd person singular feminine leatha which is a bit weird. The Irish form léithe fits the paradigm perfectly though, not that that is any consolation to us.
 
 
 
Again, i gets inserted so the caol ri caol rule isn't broken.
 
  
 +
==Labial in Root==
 
Almost there.  There next group we decided to call Labial in Root because they - surprise - all contain a labial (b, m, f):
 
Almost there.  There next group we decided to call Labial in Root because they - surprise - all contain a labial (b, m, f):
  
+
{| style="width: 30%;" border="0"
 +
! align="left" | Root
 +
! align="left" | Analysed preposition
 +
! align="left" | Full form
 +
|-
 +
| tromh-<br/>romh-<br/>ua-<br/>fodh-<br/>um- || -(a)m || tromham<br/>romham<br/>uam<br/>fodham<br/>umam
 +
|-
 +
| tromh-<br/>romh-<br/>ua-<br/>fodh-<br/>um- || -(a)d/t || tromhad<br/>romhad<br/>uat<br/>fodhad<br/>umad
 +
|-
 +
| troimh-<br/>romh-<br/>ua-<br/>fodh-<br/>um- || slenderise + e || troimhe<br/>roimhe<br/>(irr.) uaithe<br/>(irr.) fodha<br/>uime
 +
|-
 +
| troimh-<br/>romh-<br/>ua-<br/>fodh-<br/>um- || slenderise, -pe || troimhpe<br/>roimhpe<br/>uaipe<br/>foidhpe<br/>uimpe
 +
|-
 +
| tromh-<br/>romh-<br/>ua-<br/>fodh-<br/>um- || -(a)inn || tromhainn<br/>romhainn<br/>uainn<br/>fodhainn<br/>umainn
 +
|-
 +
| tromh-<br/>romh-<br/>ua-<br/>fodh-<br/>um- || -(a)ibh || tromhaibh<br/>romhaibh<br/>uaibh<br/>fodhaibh<br/>umaibh
 +
|-
 +
| tromh-<br/>romh-<br/>ua-<br/>fodh-<br/>um- || -pa || tromhpa<br/>romhpa<br/>uapa<br/>fodhpa<br/>umpa
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
Group & Endings
+
Note: bho follows the same pattern, just with bh- at the beginning i.e. buam, bhuat etc
 
 
  
LABIAL IN ROOT
+
Nothing much to add about this group really.  As you'll see later on, that weird -p- isn't part of the ending but rather a very old part of the root that crops up, now and then.
ROOT: tromh- tro
 
  
-(a)m
+
==Decidedly weird==
-(a)d/-(a)t
+
To finish this off first we need to take a look at the Decidedly Weird Group - luckily there's only one preposition - unfortunately it's also perhaps the most common one:
ROOT + [e]
 
-pe + slenderise
 
-(a)inn
 
-(a)ibh
 
-pa
 
 
  
tromh-am
+
{| style="width: 30%;" border="0"
tromh-ad
+
! align="left" | Root
troimh-e
+
! align="left" | Analysed preposition
troimh-pe
+
! align="left" | Full form
tromh-ainn
+
|-
tromh-aibh
+
| dh- || -omh || dhomh
tromh-pa
+
|-
+
| dh- || -ut || dhut
 
+
|-
tromham
+
| dh- || -a || dha
tromhad
+
|-
troimhe
+
| dh- || -i || dhi
troimhpe
+
|-
tromhainn
+
| dh- || -uinn || dhuinn
tromhaibh
+
|-
tromhpa
+
| dh- || -uibh || dhuibh
   
+
|-
  ROOT: romh- ro
+
| dh- || -aibh || dhaibh
 
+
|-
 
+
|}
romh-am
 
romh-ad
 
roimh-e
 
roimh-pe
 
romh-ainn
 
romh-aibh
 
romh-pa
 
 
 
 
romham
 
romhad
 
roimhe
 
roimhpe
 
romhainn
 
romhaibh
 
romhpa
 
   
 
  ROOT: ua- o
 
 
 
 
 
ua-m
 
ua-t
 
uai-the
 
uai-pe
 
ua-inn
 
ua-ibh
 
ua-pa
 
 
 
 
uam
 
uat
 
uaithe
 
uaipe
 
uainn
 
uaibh
 
uapa
 
   
 
  ROOT: fodh- fo
 
 
 
 
 
fodh-am
 
fodh-ad
 
fodh-a
 
foidh-pe
 
fodh-ainn
 
fodh-aibh
 
fodh-pa
 
 
 
 
fodham
 
fodhad
 
fodha
 
foidhpe
 
fodhainn
 
fodhaibh
 
fodhpa
 
   
 
  ROOT: um- mu
 
 
 
 
 
um-am
 
um-ad
 
uim-e
 
uim-pe
 
um-ainn
 
um-aibh
 
um-pa
 
 
 
 
umam
 
umad
 
uime
 
uimpe
 
umainn
 
umaibh
 
umpa
 
 
 
Nothing much to add about this group really.  As you will see later on, that weird -p- isn't part of the ending but rather a very old part of the root that crops up now and then, but let's finish this off first and take a look at the Decidedly Weird Group (luckily there's only one preposition, unfortunately it's also perhaps the most common one...):
 
 
 
 
 
 
Group & Endings
 
analysed preposition normal form
 
 
 
WEIRD
 
ROOT: dh(u)- do
 
 
 
-mh
 
-t
 
-a
 
-i
 
-inn
 
-ibh
 
-aibh
 
 
 
 
dh-omh
 
dhu-t
 
dh-a
 
dh-i
 
dhu-inn
 
dhu-ibh
 
dh-aibh
 
 
 
 
dhomh
 
dhut
 
dha
 
dhi
 
dhuinn
 
dhuibh
 
dhaibh
 
  
As you can see, compared to the other ones do is really weird. The historical notes aside, there isn't much else unfortunately that we can add that might help you.  Except a general note perhaps: for adults, learning a new language invariable involves learning stuff by heart.  If you were doing Basque you'd have to cope with over 12.000 forms for the two verbs 'to be' and 'to have' alone ... so learning the few irregular verbs of Gaelic and these few prepositions isn't that bad really.  It's really worthwhile putting in the effort though ... they are REALLY common and having to think before coming out with your conjugated preposition really marks you as a learner!!
+
As you can see, compared to the other ones, do is really weird. Historical notes aside, unfortunately, there isn't much else we can add that might help you, except a general note perhaps. For adults, learning a new language invariably involves learning stuff by heart.  If you were doing Basque you'd have to cope with over 12.000 forms for the two verbs 'to be' and 'to have' alone. So, learning the few irregular verbs of Gaelic and these few prepositions really isn't that bad.  It's worthwhile putting in the effort because they are REALLY common. Having to pause before coming out with the correct conjugated preposition does mark you as a learner!
  
 
On to the history then for the curious minds ...
 
On to the history then for the curious minds ...
  
 
{{Teamplaid:Roimhearan}}
 
{{Teamplaid:Roimhearan}}

Am mùthadh mu dheireadh on 01:09, 20 dhen t-Sultain 2013

Tricky one. They are very old words/forms. It's been a long time since they were first formed and they involve things, like the Old Irish accusative, which have been dead for a long time. So, there's no foolproof way of giving you a simple guide which tells you how you can just form them on the spot.

However, there are a few pointers that we can give you.

Broadly speaking, you can group modern Gaelic preposition into 5 categories - Regular, Mostly Regular, 3rd Person S, Labial in Root, and Decidedly Weird. We have grouped them this way because this allows you to learn them in groups and perhaps memorise some of rules. We'll also explain their history further down and historical explanation may also help some of you to understand these pesky little buggers.

Regular

Root Analysed preposition Full form
ag- -(a)m agam
ag- -(a)d agad
ag- slenderisation & -e aige
ag- slenderisation, hardening & -e aice
ag- -(a)inn againn
ag- -(a)ibh agaibh
ag- harden & -a aca

Following the same pattern:

Root Analysed preposition Full form
thug- -(a)m (th)ugam
thug- -(a)d (th)ugad
thug- slenderisation & -e (th)uige
thug- slenderisation, hardening & -e (th)uice
thug- -(a)inn (th)ugainn
thug- -(a)ibh (th)ugaibh
thug- harden & -a (th)uca

The variants ugam, ugad... and chugam, chugad... follow the same pattern.

Mostly Regular

Root Analysed preposition Full form
ann- -(a)m annam
ann- -(a)d/t annad
ann- same as root ann
ann- slenderise, -(t)e innte
ann- -(a)inn annainn
ann- -(a)ibh annaibh
ann- -(t)a annta

Following the same pattern:

Root Analysed preposition Full form
ann-
dhì-
-(a)m orm
dhìom
ann-
dhì-
-(a)d/t ort
dhìot
ann-
dhì-
same as root air
(irr.) dheth
ann-
dhì-
slenderise, -(t)e oirre
(irr.) dhith
ann-
dhì-
-(a)inn oirnn
dhinn
ann-
dhì-
-(a)ibh oirbh
dhibh
ann-
dhì-
-(t)a orra
dhiubh

The most striking feature of this group is that it uses the root form for the 3rd person singular masculine. The other bit to watch out for with air is that the root slenderises in the plural. And we get innte because the root used to be int-. But more of the history later.

The prepositions in brackets are other/older spellings of these that are still kicking about. They fit the paradigm much better, although GOC abolished them, so non-nonchalantly. <sigh>

3rd Person s

The next group is also fairly regular, but different because the 3rd person singular masculine adds an -s to the root:

Root Analysed preposition Full form
as-
le-
ri-
thar-
-(a)m asam
leam
rium
tharam
as-
le-
ri-
thar-
-(a)d/t asad
leat
riut
tharad
as-
le-
ri-
thair-
ROOT + [ʃ] (irr.) ás
leis
ris
thairis
as-
le-
ri-
thair-
slenderise, -the/-te aiste
(irr.) leatha (cf Irish léi)
rithe
thairte
as-
le-
ri-
thar-
-(a)inn asainn
leinn
r(u)inn
tharainn
as-
le-
ri-
thar-
-(a)ibh asaibh
leibh
r(u)ibh
tharaibh
as-
le-
ri-
thar-
-(t)a/-(th)a asta
leotha
riutha
tharta

As you can see, this bunch is mostly regular except for ás, which has [s] instead of the expected [ʃ]. Historically, the root of ás was ás, not á, so you would have said tha mi ás Alba, thoir ás a' bhogsa e. But at some point, the -s was re-interpreted as the -s that appears in the other prepositions, like le > leis. Thus, the "new root" á was born which led to the pattern tha mi á Alba and thoir ás a' bhogsa e. The pronunciation of aiste is /aʃtʃə/ because -s was organic and it followed the normal rules on palatalisation. The 3rd person singular feminine, leatha, is a bit weird. However, the older Irish form, léithe, fits the paradigm perfectly - not that that's any consolation to us. Again, i gets inserted so the caol ri caol rule isn't broken.

Labial in Root

Almost there. There next group we decided to call Labial in Root because they - surprise - all contain a labial (b, m, f):

Root Analysed preposition Full form
tromh-
romh-
ua-
fodh-
um-
-(a)m tromham
romham
uam
fodham
umam
tromh-
romh-
ua-
fodh-
um-
-(a)d/t tromhad
romhad
uat
fodhad
umad
troimh-
romh-
ua-
fodh-
um-
slenderise + e troimhe
roimhe
(irr.) uaithe
(irr.) fodha
uime
troimh-
romh-
ua-
fodh-
um-
slenderise, -pe troimhpe
roimhpe
uaipe
foidhpe
uimpe
tromh-
romh-
ua-
fodh-
um-
-(a)inn tromhainn
romhainn
uainn
fodhainn
umainn
tromh-
romh-
ua-
fodh-
um-
-(a)ibh tromhaibh
romhaibh
uaibh
fodhaibh
umaibh
tromh-
romh-
ua-
fodh-
um-
-pa tromhpa
romhpa
uapa
fodhpa
umpa

Note: bho follows the same pattern, just with bh- at the beginning i.e. buam, bhuat etc

Nothing much to add about this group really. As you'll see later on, that weird -p- isn't part of the ending but rather a very old part of the root that crops up, now and then.

Decidedly weird

To finish this off first we need to take a look at the Decidedly Weird Group - luckily there's only one preposition - unfortunately it's also perhaps the most common one:

Root Analysed preposition Full form
dh- -omh dhomh
dh- -ut dhut
dh- -a dha
dh- -i dhi
dh- -uinn dhuinn
dh- -uibh dhuibh
dh- -aibh dhaibh

As you can see, compared to the other ones, do is really weird. Historical notes aside, unfortunately, there isn't much else we can add that might help you, except a general note perhaps. For adults, learning a new language invariably involves learning stuff by heart. If you were doing Basque you'd have to cope with over 12.000 forms for the two verbs 'to be' and 'to have' alone. So, learning the few irregular verbs of Gaelic and these few prepositions really isn't that bad. It's worthwhile putting in the effort because they are REALLY common. Having to pause before coming out with the correct conjugated preposition does mark you as a learner!

On to the history then for the curious minds ...

Roimhearan
á - aig - air - ann an - de ⁊ a - do ⁊ a - eadar - fo - gu - le - mu - o ⁊ bho - os ⁊ fos - ri - tro - thar