An diofar eadar na mùthaidhean a rinneadh air "Prepositions made easier"

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(3rd Person s)
Loidhne 135: Loidhne 135:
 
Almost there.  There next group we decided to call Labial in Root because they - surprise - all contain a labial (b, m, f):
 
Almost there.  There next group we decided to call Labial in Root because they - surprise - all contain a labial (b, m, f):
  
Group & Endings
+
{| style="width: 30%;" border="0"
 
+
! align="left" | Root
 +
! align="left" | Analysed preposition
 +
! align="left" | Full form
 +
|-
 +
| tromh-<br/>romh-<br/>ua-<br/>fodh-<br/>um- || -(a)m || tromham<br/>romham<br/>uam<br/>fodham<br/>umam
 +
|-
 +
| tromh-<br/>romh-<br/>ua-<br/>fodh-<br/>um- || -(a)d/t || tromhad<br/>romhad<br/>uat<br/>fodhad<br/>umad
 +
|-
 +
| troimh-<br/>romh-<br/>ua-<br/>fodh-<br/>um- || slenderise + e || troimhe<br/>roimhe<br/>(irr.) uaithe<br/>(irr.) fodha<br/>uime
 +
|-
 +
| troimh-<br/>romh-<br/>ua-<br/>fodh-<br/>um- || slenderise, -pe || troimhpe<br/>roimhpe<br/>uaipe<br/>foidhpe<br/>uimpe
 +
|-
 +
| tromh-<br/>romh-<br/>ua-<br/>fodh-<br/>um- || -(a)inn || tromhainn<br/>romhainn<br/>uainn<br/>fodhainn<br/>umainn
 +
|-
 +
| tromh-<br/>romh-<br/>ua-<br/>fodh-<br/>um- || -(a)ibh || tromhaibh<br/>romhaibh<br/>uaibh<br/>fodhaibh<br/>umaibh
 +
|-
 +
| tromh-<br/>romh-<br/>ua-<br/>fodh-<br/>um- || -pa || tromhpa<br/>romhpa<br/>uapa<br/>fodhpa<br/>umpa
 +
|-
 +
|} 
  
LABIAL IN ROOT
+
Note: bho follows the same pattern, just with bh- at the beginning i.e. buam, bhuat etc
ROOT: tromh- tro
 
  
-(a)m
+
Nothing much to add about this group really.  As you'll see later on, that weird -p- isn't part of the ending but rather a very old part of the root that crops up, now and then. But, let's finish this off first and take a look at the Decidedly Weird Group - luckily there's only one preposition - unfortunately it's also perhaps the most common one:
-(a)d/-(a)t
 
ROOT + [e]
 
-pe + slenderise
 
-(a)inn
 
-(a)ibh
 
-pa
 
 
 
 
tromh-am
 
tromh-ad
 
troimh-e
 
troimh-pe
 
tromh-ainn
 
tromh-aibh
 
tromh-pa
 
 
 
 
tromham
 
tromhad
 
troimhe
 
troimhpe
 
tromhainn
 
tromhaibh
 
tromhpa
 
   
 
  ROOT: romh- ro
 
 
 
 
 
romh-am
 
romh-ad
 
roimh-e
 
roimh-pe
 
romh-ainn
 
romh-aibh
 
romh-pa
 
 
 
 
romham
 
romhad
 
roimhe
 
roimhpe
 
romhainn
 
romhaibh
 
romhpa
 
   
 
  ROOT: ua- o
 
 
 
 
 
ua-m
 
ua-t
 
uai-the
 
uai-pe
 
ua-inn
 
ua-ibh
 
ua-pa
 
 
 
 
uam
 
uat
 
uaithe
 
uaipe
 
uainn
 
uaibh
 
uapa
 
   
 
  ROOT: fodh- fo
 
 
 
 
 
fodh-am
 
fodh-ad
 
fodh-a
 
foidh-pe
 
fodh-ainn
 
fodh-aibh
 
fodh-pa
 
 
 
 
fodham
 
fodhad
 
fodha
 
foidhpe
 
fodhainn
 
fodhaibh
 
fodhpa
 
   
 
  ROOT: um- mu
 
 
 
 
 
um-am
 
um-ad
 
uim-e
 
uim-pe
 
um-ainn
 
um-aibh
 
um-pa
 
 
  
umam
+
==Decidedly weird==
umad
 
uime
 
uimpe
 
umainn
 
umaibh
 
umpa
 
 
 
Nothing much to add about this group really.  As you'll see later on, that weird -p- isn't part of the ending but rather a very old part of the root that crops up, now and then. But, let's finish this off first and take a look at the Decidedly Weird Group - luckily there's only one preposition - unfortunately it's also perhaps the most common one:
 
  
 
  
Group & Endings
 
analysed preposition normal form
 
  
 
WEIRD
 
WEIRD

Mùthadh on 15:42, 18 dhen t-Sultain 2013

Tricky one. They are very old words/forms. It's been a long time since they were first formed and they involve things, like the Old Irish accusative, which have been dead for a long time. So, there's no foolproof way of giving you a simple guide which tells you how you can just form them on the spot.

However, there are a few pointers that we can give you.

Broadly speaking, you can group modern Gaelic preposition into 5 categories - Regular, Mostly Regular, 3rd Person S, Labial in Root, and Decidedly Weird. We have grouped them this way because this allows you to learn them in groups and perhaps memorise some of rules. We'll also explain their history further down and historical explanation may also help some of you to understand these pesky little buggers.

Regular

Root Analysed preposition Full form
ag- -(a)m agam
ag- -(a)d agad
ag- slenderisation & -e aige
ag- slenderisation, hardening & -e aice
ag- -(a)inn againn
ag- -(a)ibh agaibh
ag- harden & -a aca

Following the same pattern:

Root Analysed preposition Full form
thug- -(a)m (th)ugam
thug- -(a)d (th)ugad
thug- slenderisation & -e (th)uige
thug- slenderisation, hardening & -e (th)uice
thug- -(a)inn (th)ugainn
thug- -(a)ibh (th)ugaibh
thug- harden & -a (th)uca

The variants ugam, ugad... and chugam, chugad... follow the same pattern.

Mostly Regular

Root Analysed preposition Full form
ann- -(a)m annam
ann- -(a)d/t annad
ann- same as root ann
ann- slenderise, -(t)e innte
ann- -(a)inn annainn
ann- -(a)ibh annaibh
ann- -(t)a annta

Following the same pattern:

Root Analysed preposition Full form
ann-
dhì-
-(a)m orm
dhìom
ann-
dhì-
-(a)d/t ort
dhìot
ann-
dhì-
same as root air
(irr.) dheth
ann-
dhì-
slenderise, -(t)e oirre
(irr.) dhith
ann-
dhì-
-(a)inn oirnn
dhinn
ann-
dhì-
-(a)ibh oirbh
dhibh
ann-
dhì-
-(t)a orra
dhiubh

The most striking feature of this group is that it uses the root form for the 3rd person singular masculine. The other bit to watch out for with air is that the root slenderises in the plural. And we get innte because the root used to be int-. But more of the history later.

The prepositions in brackets are other/older spellings of these that are still kicking about. They fit the paradigm much better, although GOC abolished them, so non-nonchalantly. <sigh>

3rd Person s

The next group is also fairly regular, but different because the 3rd person singular masculine adds an -s to the root:


Root Analysed preposition Full form
as-
le-
ri-
thar-
-(a)m asam
leam
rium
tharam
as-
le-
ri-
thar-
-(a)d/t asad
leat
riut
tharad
as-
le-
ri-
thair-
ROOT + [ʃ] (irr.) ás
leis
ris
thairis
as-
le-
ri-
thair-
slenderise, -the/-te aiste
(irr.) leatha (cf Irish léi)
rithe
thairte
as-
le-
ri-
thar-
-(a)inn asainn
leinn
r(u)inn
tharainn
as-
le-
ri-
thar-
-(a)ibh asaibh
leibh
r(u)ibh
tharaibh
as-
le-
ri-
thar-
-(t)a/-(th)a asta
leotha
riutha
tharta


As you can see, this bunch is mostly regular except for ás, which has [s] instead of the expected [ʃ] and the 3rd person singular feminine leatha which is a bit weird. The (older) Irish form léithe fits the paradigm perfectly though, not that that is any consolation to us.

Again, i gets inserted so the caol ri caol rule isn't broken.

Labial in Root

Almost there. There next group we decided to call Labial in Root because they - surprise - all contain a labial (b, m, f):

Root Analysed preposition Full form
tromh-
romh-
ua-
fodh-
um-
-(a)m tromham
romham
uam
fodham
umam
tromh-
romh-
ua-
fodh-
um-
-(a)d/t tromhad
romhad
uat
fodhad
umad
troimh-
romh-
ua-
fodh-
um-
slenderise + e troimhe
roimhe
(irr.) uaithe
(irr.) fodha
uime
troimh-
romh-
ua-
fodh-
um-
slenderise, -pe troimhpe
roimhpe
uaipe
foidhpe
uimpe
tromh-
romh-
ua-
fodh-
um-
-(a)inn tromhainn
romhainn
uainn
fodhainn
umainn
tromh-
romh-
ua-
fodh-
um-
-(a)ibh tromhaibh
romhaibh
uaibh
fodhaibh
umaibh
tromh-
romh-
ua-
fodh-
um-
-pa tromhpa
romhpa
uapa
fodhpa
umpa

Note: bho follows the same pattern, just with bh- at the beginning i.e. buam, bhuat etc

Nothing much to add about this group really. As you'll see later on, that weird -p- isn't part of the ending but rather a very old part of the root that crops up, now and then. But, let's finish this off first and take a look at the Decidedly Weird Group - luckily there's only one preposition - unfortunately it's also perhaps the most common one:

Decidedly weird

WEIRD ROOT: dh(u)- do

-mh -t -a -i -inn -ibh -aibh


dh-omh dhu-t dh-a dh-i dhu-inn dhu-ibh dh-aibh


dhomh dhut dha dhi dhuinn dhuibh dhaibh

As you can see, compared to the other ones, do is really weird. Historical notes aside, unfortunately, there isn't much else we can add that might help you, except a general note perhaps. For adults, learning a new language invariably involves learning stuff by heart. If you were doing Basque you'd have to cope with over 12.000 forms for the two verbs 'to be' and 'to have' alone. So, learning the few irregular verbs of Gaelic and these few prepositions really isn't that bad. It's worthwhile putting in the effort because they are REALLY common. Having to pause before coming out with the correct conjugated preposition does mark you as a learner!

On to the history then for the curious minds ...

Roimhearan
á - aig - air - ann an - de ⁊ a - do ⁊ a - eadar - fo - gu - le - mu - o ⁊ bho - os ⁊ fos - ri - tro - thar