An diofar eadar na mùthaidhean a rinneadh air "PPP - Pronouns, prepositions and their pronunciation"

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(Ri)
 
(46 mùthadh eadar-mheadhanach le 3 cleachdaichean eile nach eil 46 'gan sealltainn)
Loidhne 1: Loidhne 1:
No explanantion needed really, tables of the conjugated pronouns with their pronunciation.
+
In this section we'll try to give you a fairly comprehensive overview of the Gaelic prepositions - including some of the more obscure issues and a fresh view on some old friends.
  
{| style="width: 15%;" border="0" align="left"
+
But before we start, a quick anecdote about rules in language.
 +
 
 +
Linguists will tell you that some languages are PRO-drop languages and some are not.  PRO stands for 'pronoun' and PRO-drop means that in some languages you're permitted to drop the pronoun in a sentence. Generally, this is allowed because the verb alone already marks the grammatical person (i.e. you, me, he, they etc.).  Spanish is a PRO-drop language in which you can either say yo tengo una cebra or tengo una cebra and both mean "I have a zebra."  On the other hand, linguists will tell you that English is not a PRO-drop language, never ever, ever.  Or is it?  This morning, I asked my partner a question: "have you ever used the word "prune" as an insult?" The answer came straight back: "might have done". Can YOU see a pronoun anywhere?  I can't.  Anyway, this isn't a blog, but I thought I'd remind us all that languages are unruly things. While there are rules that you can learn and follow, they rarely apply in 100% of cases.  Still, 99% isn't bad either, is it?
 +
 
 +
For the most part, they're arranged in groups according to their first element, for example, for mu choinneimh, look under mu.
 +
 
 +
How to remember them? Wellll... I get asked that a lot. [[Prepositions made easier|I've tried]] but it may not be everyone's cup of sùgh an eòrna - but just in case.
 +
 
 +
==<span style="color: #008000;">À</span>==
 +
{| style="width: 15%;" border="0"
 
|-
 
|-
| colspan="2" | À [a]  
+
| <span style="color: #008000;">à</span> || [a]  
 
|-
 
|-
| colspan="2" | ÀS AN [as əN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>]
+
| <span style="color: #008000;">às an</span> || [as əN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>]
 
|-
 
|-
| asam || [asəm]
+
|
 
|-
 
|-
| asad || [asəd]
+
| <span style="color: #008000;">asam</span> || [asəm]
 
|-
 
|-
| às || [as]
+
| <span style="color: #008000;">asad</span> || [asəd]
 
|-
 
|-
| aiste || [aʃdʲə]
+
| <span style="color: #008000;">às</span> || [as]
 
|-
 
|-
| asainn || [asɪNʲ]
+
| <span style="color: #008000;">aiste</span> || [aʃdʲə]
 
|-
 
|-
| asaibh || [asɪv]
+
| <span style="color: #008000;">asainn</span> || [asɪNʲ]
 
|-
 
|-
| asta || [asdə]
+
| <span style="color: #008000;">asaibh</span> || [asɪv]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">asta</span> || [asdə]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
  
{| style="width: 15%;" border="0" align="left"
+
==<span style="color: #008000;">Aig</span>==
 +
{| style="width: 15%;" border="0"
 
|-
 
|-
| colspan="2" | AIG [ɛgʲ]  
+
| <span style="color: #008000;">aig</span> || [ɛgʲ]  
 
|-
 
|-
| colspan="2" | AIG AN [ɛgʲ əN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>]
+
| <span style="color: #008000;">aig an</span> || [ɛgʲ əN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>]
 
|-
 
|-
| agam || [agəm]
+
|
 
|-
 
|-
| agad || [agəd]
+
| <span style="color: #008000;">agam</span> || [agəm]
 
|-
 
|-
| aige || [ɛgʲə]
+
| <span style="color: #008000;">agad</span> || [agəd]
 
|-
 
|-
| aice || [ɛçgʲə]
+
| <span style="color: #008000;">aige</span> || [ɛgʲə]
 
|-
 
|-
| againn || [agɪNʲ]
+
| <span style="color: #008000;">aice</span> || [ɛçgʲə]
 
|-
 
|-
| agaibh || [agɪv]
+
| <span style="color: #008000;">againn</span> || [agɪNʲ]
 
|-
 
|-
| aca || [axgə]
+
| <span style="color: #008000;">agaibh</span> || [agɪv]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">aca</span> || [axgə]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
  
AIR [eɾʲ]   AIR AN [eɾʲ ən]
+
<span style="color: #008000;">Aig</span> + possessive pronoun
 +
{| style="width: 15%;" border="0"
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">'gam</span> || [gam]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">'gad</span> || [gəd]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">'ga</span> || [ga]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">'ga (h-)</span> || [ga (h)]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">'gar (n-)</span> || [gar (n)]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">'gur (n-)</span> || [gar (n)]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">'gan</span> || [gan]
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
orm
+
==<span style="color: #008000;">Air</span>==
+
{| style="width: 15%;" border="0"
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">air</span> || [ɛrʲ]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">air an</span> || [ɛrʲ əN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>]
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">orm</span> || [ɔrɔm]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">ort</span> || [ɔRʃd]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">air</span> || [ɛrʲ]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">oirre</span> || [ɔRə]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">oirnn</span> || [ɔːRNʲ]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">oirbh</span> || [ɔrʲɪv]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">orra</span> || [ɔRə]
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
==<span style="color: #008000;">Ann an</span>==
 +
[[Preposition-annan|More about ''ann an'']]
 +
{| style="width: 15%;" border="0"
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">ann an</span> || [ãũN əN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">anns an</span> || [ãũNs əN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>]
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">annam</span> || [ũNəm]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">annad</span> || [ũNəd]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">ann</span> || [ãũN]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">innte</span> || [ĩːNʲdʲə]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">annainn</span> || [aNɪNʲ]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">annaibh</span> || [aNɪv]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">annta</span> || [ãũNdə]
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
[ɔɾəm]
+
<span style="color: #008000;">Ann an</span> + possessive pronoun
 +
{| style="width: 15%;" border="0"
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">'nam</span> || [nam]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">'nad</span> || [nad]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">'na</span> || [na]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">'na (h-)</span> || [na (h)]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">'nar (n-)</span> || [nar (n)]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">'nur (n-)</span> || [nar (n)]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">'nan</span> || [nan]
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
ort
+
==<span style="color: #008000;">De</span>==
+
[[DE ⁊ A|More about ''de'']]
 +
{| style="width: 15%;" border="0"
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">de</span> || [də]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">dhen / dhen an</span> || [ʝɛN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>] / [ʝɛnəN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">dhìom</span> || [ʝĩə̃m]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">dhìot</span> || [ʝied]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">dheth</span> || [ʝe]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">dhith</span> || [ʝi]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">dhinn</span> || [ʝĩNʲ]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">dhibh</span> || [ʝiv]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">dhiubh</span> || [ʝu]
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
[ɔɹʃt̪]
+
==<span style="color: #008000;">Do</span>==
 +
{| style="width: 20%;" border="0"
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">do</span> || []  
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">dhan / dhan an</span> || [ɣaN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>], [ɣanəN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>]
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">dhomh</span> || [ɣɔ̃]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">dhut</span> || [ɣuhd]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">dha</span> || [ɣa]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">dhi</span> || [ʝi]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">dhuinn</span> || [ɣɯ̃ĩNʲ]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">dhuibh</span> || [ɣɯiv]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">dhaibh</span> || [ɣaiv]
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
air
+
==<span style="color: #008000;">Eadar</span>==
+
{| style="width: 15%;" border="0"
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">eadar</span> || [edər]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">eadar an</span> || [edər əN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>]
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">eadarainn</span> || [edərɪNʲ]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">eadaraibh</span> || [edərɪv]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">eatarra</span> || [ehdəRə]
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
[eɾʲ]
+
==<span style="color: #008000;">Fo</span>==
 +
{| style="width: 15%;" border="0"
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">fo</span> || []  
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">fon / fon an</span> || [fɔN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>] / [fɔnəN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>]
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">fodham</span> || [fo.əm]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">fodhad</span> || [fo.əd]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">fodha</span> || [fo.ə]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">foidhpe</span> || [foihbə]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">fodhainn</span> || [fo.ɪNʲ]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">fodhaibh</span> || [fo.ɪv]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">fodhpa</span> || [fohbə]
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
oirre
+
==<span style="color: #008000;">Gu</span>==
+
{| style="width: 15%;" border="0"
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">gu</span> || [gu]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">gun<br />chun an</span> || [gunəN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>]<br />[xunəN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>]
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">thugam</span> || [hugəm]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">thugad</span> || [hugəd]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">thuige</span> || [hɯgʲə]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">thuice</span> || [hɯçgʲə]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">thugainn</span> || [hugɪNʲ]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">thugaibh</span> || [hugɪv]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">thuca</span> || [huxgə]
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
[ɔr̴ɪ]
+
==<span style="color: #008000;">Le</span>==
 +
{| style="width: 15%;" border="0"
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">le</span> || [le]  
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">leis an</span> || [leʃ əN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>]
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">leam</span> || [ləm]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">leat</span> || [lahd]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">leis</span> || [leʃ]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">leatha</span> || [le.ə]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">leinn</span> || [lẽĩNʲ]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">leibh</span> || [leiv]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">leotha</span> || [lo.ə]
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
oirnn
+
==<span style="color: #008000;">Mu</span>==
+
{| style="width: 15%;" border="0"
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">mu</span> || [mə]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">mun / mun an</span> || [muN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>] / [munəN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>]
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">umam</span> || [ũməm]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">umad</span> || [ũməd]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">uime</span> || [ɯ̃imə]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">uimpe</span> || [ɯ̃imbə]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">umainn</span> || [ũmɪNʲ]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">umaibh</span> || [ũmɪv]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">umpa</span> || [ũːmbə]
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
[ɔɹɲ]
+
==<span style="color: #008000;">O</span>==
 +
{| style="width: 15%;" border="0"
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">o</span> || [ɔ]  
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">on / on an</span> || [ɔN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>] / [ɔnəN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>]
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">uam</span> || [uəm]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">uat</span> || [uəhd]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">uaidhe</span> || [uajə]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">uaipe</span> || [uəihbə]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">uainn</span> || [ũə̃ĩNʲ]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">uaibh</span> || [uəiv]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">uapa</span> || [uəhbə]
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
oirbh
+
==<span style="color: #008000;">Ri</span>==
+
[[Ri|More about ''ri'']]
 +
{| style="width: 15%;" border="0"
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">ri</span> || [rʲi]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">ris an</span> || [rʲiʃ əN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>]
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">rium</span> || [rʲum]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">riut</span> || [rʲuʰd]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">ris</span> || [rʲiʃ]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">rithe</span> || [rʲi.ə]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">r(u)inn</span> || [rɯ̃ĩNʲ]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">r(u)ibh</span> || [rɯiv]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">riutha</span> || [ru.ə]
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
[ɔɾʲɪv]
+
==<span style="color: #008000;">Tro</span>==
 +
{| style="width: 15%;" border="0"
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">tro</span> || [trɔ]  
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">tron / tron an</span> || [trɔN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>] / [trɔnəN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>]
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">tromham</span> || [trɔ.əm]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">tromhad</span> || [trɔ.əd]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">troimhe</span> || [trɔjə]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">troimhpe</span> || [trɔihbə]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">tromhainn</span> || [trɔ.ɪNʲ]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">tromhaibh</span> || [trɔ.ɪv]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">tromhpa</span> || [trɔ̃hbə]
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
orra
+
==<span style="color: #008000;">Thar</span>==
 
  
[ɔr̴ə]
+
{| style="width: 15%;" border="0"
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">thar</span> || [har]  
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">thar an</span> || [har əN<sup>(ʲ)</sup>]
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">tharam</span> || [harəm]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">tharad</span> || [harəd]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">thairis air</span> || [harʲɪʃ ɛrʲ]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">thairte</span> || [haRʃdʲə]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">tharainn</span> || [harɪNʲ]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">tharaibh</span> || [harɪv]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">tharta</span> || [haRʃdə]
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
ANN AN [ãũn̴̪ ən] ANNS (AN) [ãũn̴̪s ən]
+
==Personal pronouns==
  
annam
+
{| style="width: 15%;" border="0"
+
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">mi</span> || [mĩː] || [mi]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">thu<br />tu</span> || [uː]<br />[duː] || [u]<br />[du]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">e</span> || [ɛː] || [ə]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">i</span> || [iː] || [i]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">sinn</span> || [ʃiːNʲ] || [ʃiNʲ]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">sibh</span> || [ʃiːv] || [ʃiv]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">iad</span> || [iəd] || [əd]
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
[ũn̴̪əm]
+
==Personal pronouns with emphatic suffixes==
  
annad
+
{| style="width: 15%;" border="0"
+
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">mise</span> || [mĩʃə]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">thusa<br />tusa</span> || [usə]<br />[dusə]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">esan</span> || [ɛsən]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">ise</span> || [iʃə]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">sinne</span> || [ʃiNʲə]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">sibhse</span> || [ʃiːvʃə]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">iadsan</span> || [iədsən]
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
[ũn̴̪əd̪̊]
+
==Possessive pronoun==
 +
{| style="width: 15%;" border="0"
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">mo chù</span> || [mə'xuː]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">do chù</span> || [də'xuː]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">a chù</span> || [ə'xuː]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">a cù</span> || [ə'kuː]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">ar cù</span> || [ər'kuː]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">ur cù</span> || [ər'kuː]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">an cù</span> || [əŋ'kuː]
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
ann
+
==Possessive pronoun with emphatic suffixes==
+
{| style="width: 15%;" border="0"
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">mo chù-sa</span> || [mə'xuːsə]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">do chù-sa</span> || [də'xuːsə ]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">a chù-san</span> || [ə'xuːsən]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">a cù-se</span> || [ə'kuːʃə]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">ar cù-ne</span> || [ər'kuːnə]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">ur cù-se</span> || [ər'kuːʃə]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">an cù-san</span> || [ən'kuːsən]
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
[ãũn̴̪]
+
==Possessive pronoun with initial vowel==
 +
{| style="width: 15%;" border="0"
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">m' anam</span> || [manam]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">d' anam</span> || [danam]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">anam</span> || [anam]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">a h-anam</span> || [ə'hanam]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">ar n-anam</span> || [ər'nanam]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">ur n-anam</span> || [ər'nanam]
 +
|-
 +
| <span style="color: #008000;">an anam</span> || [ə'nanam]
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
innte
+
==Possessive pronoun with initial vowel and emphatic suffixes==
+
{| style="width: 20%;" border="0"
 
+
|-
[ĩːɲd̊ʲɪ]
+
| <span style="color: #008000;">m' anam-sa</span> || [manamsə]
 
+
|-
annainn
+
| <span style="color: #008000;">d' anam-sa</span> || [danamsə]
+
|-
 
+
| <span style="color: #008000;">anam-san</span> || [anamsən]
[ũn̴̪ɪɲ]
+
|-
 
+
| <span style="color: #008000;">a h-anam-se</span> || [ə'hanamʃə]
annaibh
+
|-
+
| <span style="color: #008000;">ar n-anam-ne</span> || [ər'nanamnə]
 
+
|-
[ũn̴̪ɪv]
+
| <span style="color: #008000;">ur n-anam-se</span> || [ər'nanamʃə]
 
+
|-
annta
+
| <span style="color: #008000;">an anam-san</span> || [ə'nanamsən]
+
|-
 
+
|}
[ãũn̴̪d̪̊ə]
 
 
 
ANN AN + riochdair seilbheach
 
 
 
’nam
 
 
 
 
[nəm]
 
 
 
’nad
 
 
 
 
[nəd̪̊]
 
 
 
’na
 
 
 
 
[nə]
 
 
 
’na (h-)
 
 
 
 
[nə (h)]
 
 
 
’nar
 
 
 
 
[nəɾ]
 
 
 
’nur
 
 
 
 
[nəɾ]
 
 
 
’nan
 
 
 
 
[nən]
 
 
 
AIG + riochdair seilbheach
 
 
 
’gam
 
 
 
 
[g̊əm]
 
 
 
’gad
 
 
 
 
[g̊əd̪̊]
 
 
 
’ga
 
 
 
 
[g̊ə]
 
 
 
’ga (h-)
 
 
 
 
[g̊ə (h)]
 
 
 
’gar
 
 
 
 
[g̊əɾ]
 
 
 
’gur
 
 
 
 
[g̊əɾ]
 
 
 
’gan
 
 
 
 
[g̊ən]
 
 
 
DE [d̊ʲe]  DHEN (AN) [ʝen ən]
 
 
 
dhiom
 
 
 
 
[ʝĩə̃m]
 
 
 
dhiot
 
 
 
 
[ʝied̪̊]
 
 
 
dheth
 
 
 
 
[ʝe]
 
 
 
dhith
 
 
 
 
[ʝi]
 
 
 
dhinn
 
 
 
 
[ʝĩɲ]
 
 
 
dhibh
 
 
 
 
[ʝi(v)]
 
 
 
dhiubh
 
 
 
 
[ʝu(v)]
 
 
 
DO [d̪̊ɔ]  DHAN (AN) [ɣan ən]
 
 
 
dhomh
 
 
 
 
[ɣɔ̃]
 
 
 
dhut
 
 
 
 
[ɣuʰt̪]
 
 
 
dhà
 
 
 
 
[ɣaː]
 
 
 
dhì
 
 
 
 
[ʝiː]
 
 
 
dhuinn
 
 
 
 
[ɣɯ̃ɲ]
 
 
 
dhuibh
 
 
 
 
[ɣɯiv]
 
 
 
dhaibh
 
 
 
 
[ɣaiv]
 
 
 
EADAR [ed̪̊əɾ]  EADAR AN [ed̪̊əɾ ən]
 
 
 
-
 
 
 
 
-
 
 
 
-
 
 
 
 
-
 
 
 
-
 
 
 
 
-
 
 
 
-
 
 
 
 
-
 
 
 
eadarainn
 
 
 
 
[ed̪̊əɾɪɲ]
 
 
 
eadaraibh
 
 
 
 
[ed̪̊əɾɪv]
 
 
 
eadarra
 
 
 
 
[ed̪̊ər̴ə]
 
 
 
FO [fo]  FON (AN) [fon ən]
 
 
 
fodham
 
 
 
 
[fo.əm]
 
 
 
fodhad
 
 
 
 
[fo.əd̪̊]
 
 
 
fodha
 
 
 
 
[fo.ə]
 
 
 
foidhpe
 
 
 
 
[foiʰpɪ]
 
 
 
fodhainn
 
 
 
 
[fo.ɪɲ]
 
 
 
fodhaibh
 
 
 
 
[fo.ɪv]
 
 
 
fodhpa
 
 
 
 
[foʰpə]
 
 
 
GU [g̊u]  CHUN (AN) [xun ən]
 
 
 
thugam
 
 
 
 
[hug̊əm]
 
 
 
thugad
 
 
 
 
[hug̊əd̪̊]
 
 
 
thuige
 
 
 
 
[hɯg̊ʲɪ]
 
 
 
thuice
 
 
 
 
[hɯʰkʲɪ]
 
 
 
thugainn
 
 
 
 
[hug̊ɪɲ]
 
 
 
thugaibh
 
 
 
 
[hug̊ɪv]
 
 
 
thuca
 
 
 
 
[huʰkə]
 
 
 
LE [le]  LEIS (AN) [leʃ ən]
 
 
 
leam
 
 
 
 
[ləm]
 
 
 
leat
 
 
 
 
[laʰt̪]
 
 
 
leis
 
 
 
 
[leʃ]
 
 
 
leatha
 
 
 
 
[le.ə]
 
 
 
leinn
 
 
 
 
[lẽĩɲ]
 
 
 
leibh
 
 
 
 
[leiv]
 
 
 
leotha
 
 
 
 
[lo.ə]
 
 
 
MU [mə]  MUN (AN) [mən ən]
 
 
 
umam
 
 
 
 
[ũməm]
 
 
 
umad
 
 
 
 
[ũməd̪̊]
 
 
 
uime
 
 
 
 
[ɯ̃imɪ]
 
 
 
uimpe
 
 
 
 
[ɯ̃impɪ]
 
 
 
umainn
 
 
 
 
[ũmɪɲ]
 
 
 
umaibh
 
 
 
 
[ũmɪv]
 
 
 
umpa
 
 
 
 
[ũmpə]
 
 
 
O [o]  ON (AN) [on ən]
 
 
 
uam
 
 
 
 
[uəm]
 
 
 
uad
 
 
 
 
[uəd̪̊]
 
 
 
uaidhe
 
 
 
 
[uai.ɪ]
 
 
 
uaipe
 
 
 
 
[uaiʰpɪ]
 
 
 
uainn
 
 
 
 
[ũãĩɲ]
 
 
 
uaibh
 
 
 
 
[uaiv]
 
 
 
uapa
 
 
 
 
[uəʰpə]
 
 
 
RI [ɾʲi]  RIS (AN) [ɾʲiʃ ən]
 
 
 
rium
 
 
 
 
[ɾʲium]
 
 
 
riut
 
 
 
 
[ɾʲiuʰt̪]
 
 
 
ris
 
 
 
 
[ɾʲiʃ]
 
 
 
rithe
 
 
 
 
[ɾʲi.ɪ]
 
 
 
ruinn
 
 
 
 
[r̴ũĩɲ]
 
 
 
ruibh
 
 
 
 
[r̴uiv]
 
 
 
riutha
 
 
 
 
[ɾ̴iu.ə]
 
 
 
TRO [t̪ɾɔ]  TRON (AN) [t̪ɾɔn ən]
 
 
 
trodham
 
 
 
 
[t̪ɾɔ.əm]
 
 
 
trodhad
 
 
 
 
[t̪ɾɔ.əd̪̊]
 
 
 
troimhe
 
 
 
 
[t̪ɾɔ̃i.ɪ]
 
 
 
troimhpe
 
 
 
 
[t̪ɾɔ̃iʰpɪ]
 
 
 
tromhainn
 
 
 
 
[t̪ɾɔ̃.ɪɲ]
 
 
 
trobhaibh
 
 
 
 
[t̪ɾɔ.ɪv]
 
 
 
tromhpa
 
 
 
 
[t̪ɾɔ̃ʰpə]
 
 
 
THAR [haɾ]  THAR (AN) [haɾ ən]
 
 
 
tharam
 
 
 
 
[haɾəm]
 
 
 
tharad
 
 
 
 
[haɾəd̪̊]
 
 
 
thairis air
 
 
 
 
[haɾʲɪʃ er']
 
 
 
thairte
 
 
 
 
[haɹtʲɪ]
 
 
 
tharainn
 
 
 
 
[haɾɪɲ]
 
 
 
tharaibh
 
 
 
 
[haɾɪv]
 
 
 
tharta
 
 
 
 
[haɹt̪ə]
 
 
 
Riochdairean Seilbheach
 
 
 
mo chù
 
 
 
 
[mɔ'xuː]
 
 
 
do chù
 
 
 
 
[dɔ'xuː]
 
 
 
a chù
 
 
 
 
[ə'xuː]
 
 
 
a cù
 
 
 
 
[ə'kuː]
 
 
 
ar cù
 
 
 
 
[ər'kuː]
 
 
 
ur cù
 
 
 
 
[ər'kuː]
 
 
 
an cù
 
 
 
 
[ən'kuː]
 
 
 
Le Iar-Leasachain Neartmhor
 
 
 
mo chù-sa
 
 
 
 
[mɔ'xuːsə]
 
 
 
do chù-sa
 
 
 
 
[dɔ'xuːsə ]
 
 
 
a chù-san
 
 
 
 
[ə'xuːsən]
 
 
 
a cù-se
 
 
 
 
[ə'kuːʃɪ]
 
 
 
ar cù-ne
 
 
 
 
[ər'kuːɲ ɪ]
 
 
 
ur cù-se
 
 
 
 
[ər'kuːʃɪ]
 
 
 
an cù-san
 
 
 
 
[ən'kuːsən]
 
 
 
Riochdairean Seilbheach
 
 
 
m’ anam
 
 
 
 
[manam]
 
 
 
d’ anam
 
 
 
 
[danam ]
 
 
 
’anam
 
 
 
 
[anam]
 
 
 
a h-anam
 
 
 
 
[ə'hanam]
 
 
 
ar n-anam
 
 
 
 
[ər'n̴̪anam]
 
 
 
ur n-anam
 
 
 
 
[ər'n̴̪anam]
 
 
 
an anam
 
 
 
 
[ə'n̴anam]
 
 
 
Le Iar-Leasachain Neartmhor
 
 
 
m’ anam-sa
 
 
 
 
[manamsə]
 
 
 
d’ anam-sa
 
 
 
 
[danamsə ]
 
 
 
’anam-san
 
 
 
 
[anamsən]
 
 
 
a h-anam-se
 
 
 
 
[ə'hanamʃɪ]
 
 
 
ar n-anam-ne
 
 
 
 
[ər'n̴̪anamɲ ɪ]
 
 
 
ur n-anam-se
 
 
 
 
[ər'n̴̪anamʃɪ]
 
 
 
an anam-san
 
 
 
 
[ə'n̴̪anamsən]
 
 
 
Riochdairean Seilbheach
 
 
 
 
 
 
le beum
 
 
 
 
gun bheum
 
 
 
mi
 
 
 
 
[mĩ]
 
 
 
 
[mi]
 
 
 
thu/tu
 
 
 
 
[uː/d̪̊uː]
 
 
 
 
[u/d̪̊u]
 
 
 
e
 
 
 
 
[ɛː]
 
 
 
 
[ɛ]
 
 
 
i
 
 
 
 
[ĩː]
 
 
 
 
[i]
 
 
 
sinn
 
 
 
 
[ʃiɲ]
 
 
 
 
[ʃiɲ]
 
 
 
sibh
 
 
 
 
[siːv]
 
 
 
 
[siːv]
 
 
 
iad
 
 
 
 
[i.əd̪̊]
 
 
 
 
[iəd̪̊]
 
 
 
Le Iar-Leasachain Neartmhor
 
 
 
mise
 
 
 
 
[mĩʃɪ]
 
 
 
thusa/tusa
 
 
 
 
[usə/d̪̊usə]
 
 
 
esan
 
 
 
 
[ɛsən]
 
 
 
ise
 
 
 
 
[iʃɪ]
 
 
 
sinne
 
 
 
 
[ʃiɲɪ]
 
 
 
sibhse
 
 
 
 
[siːvʃɪ]
 
 
 
iadsan
 
 
 
 
[iəd̪̊sən]
 
  
 
<br />
 
<br />
 
<br />
 
<br />
 
{{BeaganGramair}}
 
{{BeaganGramair}}

Am mùthadh mu dheireadh on 12:36, 13 dhen Ghiblean 2017

In this section we'll try to give you a fairly comprehensive overview of the Gaelic prepositions - including some of the more obscure issues and a fresh view on some old friends.

But before we start, a quick anecdote about rules in language.

Linguists will tell you that some languages are PRO-drop languages and some are not. PRO stands for 'pronoun' and PRO-drop means that in some languages you're permitted to drop the pronoun in a sentence. Generally, this is allowed because the verb alone already marks the grammatical person (i.e. you, me, he, they etc.). Spanish is a PRO-drop language in which you can either say yo tengo una cebra or tengo una cebra and both mean "I have a zebra." On the other hand, linguists will tell you that English is not a PRO-drop language, never ever, ever. Or is it? This morning, I asked my partner a question: "have you ever used the word "prune" as an insult?" The answer came straight back: "might have done". Can YOU see a pronoun anywhere? I can't. Anyway, this isn't a blog, but I thought I'd remind us all that languages are unruly things. While there are rules that you can learn and follow, they rarely apply in 100% of cases. Still, 99% isn't bad either, is it?

For the most part, they're arranged in groups according to their first element, for example, for mu choinneimh, look under mu.

How to remember them? Wellll... I get asked that a lot. I've tried but it may not be everyone's cup of sùgh an eòrna - but just in case.

À

à [a]
às an [as əN(ʲ)]
asam [asəm]
asad [asəd]
às [as]
aiste [aʃdʲə]
asainn [asɪNʲ]
asaibh [asɪv]
asta [asdə]

Aig

aig [ɛgʲ]
aig an [ɛgʲ əN(ʲ)]
agam [agəm]
agad [agəd]
aige [ɛgʲə]
aice [ɛçgʲə]
againn [agɪNʲ]
agaibh [agɪv]
aca [axgə]

Aig + possessive pronoun

'gam [gam]
'gad [gəd]
'ga [ga]
'ga (h-) [ga (h)]
'gar (n-) [gar (n)]
'gur (n-) [gar (n)]
'gan [gan]

Air

air [ɛrʲ]
air an [ɛrʲ əN(ʲ)]
orm [ɔrɔm]
ort [ɔRʃd]
air [ɛrʲ]
oirre [ɔRə]
oirnn [ɔːRNʲ]
oirbh [ɔrʲɪv]
orra [ɔRə]

Ann an

More about ann an

ann an [ãũN əN(ʲ)]
anns an [ãũNs əN(ʲ)]
annam [ũNəm]
annad [ũNəd]
ann [ãũN]
innte [ĩːNʲdʲə]
annainn [aNɪNʲ]
annaibh [aNɪv]
annta [ãũNdə]

Ann an + possessive pronoun

'nam [nam]
'nad [nad]
'na [na]
'na (h-) [na (h)]
'nar (n-) [nar (n)]
'nur (n-) [nar (n)]
'nan [nan]

De

More about de

de [də]
dhen / dhen an [ʝɛN(ʲ)] / [ʝɛnəN(ʲ)]
dhìom [ʝĩə̃m]
dhìot [ʝied]
dheth [ʝe]
dhith [ʝi]
dhinn [ʝĩNʲ]
dhibh [ʝiv]
dhiubh [ʝu]

Do

do [də]
dhan / dhan an [ɣaN(ʲ)], [ɣanəN(ʲ)]
dhomh [ɣɔ̃]
dhut [ɣuhd]
dha [ɣa]
dhi [ʝi]
dhuinn [ɣɯ̃ĩNʲ]
dhuibh [ɣɯiv]
dhaibh [ɣaiv]

Eadar

eadar [edər]
eadar an [edər əN(ʲ)]
eadarainn [edərɪNʲ]
eadaraibh [edərɪv]
eatarra [ehdəRə]

Fo

fo [fɔ]
fon / fon an [fɔN(ʲ)] / [fɔnəN(ʲ)]
fodham [fo.əm]
fodhad [fo.əd]
fodha [fo.ə]
foidhpe [foihbə]
fodhainn [fo.ɪNʲ]
fodhaibh [fo.ɪv]
fodhpa [fohbə]

Gu

gu [gu]
gun
chun an
[gunəN(ʲ)]
[xunəN(ʲ)]
thugam [hugəm]
thugad [hugəd]
thuige [hɯgʲə]
thuice [hɯçgʲə]
thugainn [hugɪNʲ]
thugaibh [hugɪv]
thuca [huxgə]

Le

le [le]
leis an [leʃ əN(ʲ)]
leam [ləm]
leat [lahd]
leis [leʃ]
leatha [le.ə]
leinn [lẽĩNʲ]
leibh [leiv]
leotha [lo.ə]

Mu

mu [mə]
mun / mun an [muN(ʲ)] / [munəN(ʲ)]
umam [ũməm]
umad [ũməd]
uime [ɯ̃imə]
uimpe [ɯ̃imbə]
umainn [ũmɪNʲ]
umaibh [ũmɪv]
umpa [ũːmbə]

O

o [ɔ]
on / on an [ɔN(ʲ)] / [ɔnəN(ʲ)]
uam [uəm]
uat [uəhd]
uaidhe [uajə]
uaipe [uəihbə]
uainn [ũə̃ĩNʲ]
uaibh [uəiv]
uapa [uəhbə]

Ri

More about ri

ri [rʲi]
ris an [rʲiʃ əN(ʲ)]
rium [rʲum]
riut [rʲuʰd]
ris [rʲiʃ]
rithe [rʲi.ə]
r(u)inn [rɯ̃ĩNʲ]
r(u)ibh [rɯiv]
riutha [ru.ə]

Tro

tro [trɔ]
tron / tron an [trɔN(ʲ)] / [trɔnəN(ʲ)]
tromham [trɔ.əm]
tromhad [trɔ.əd]
troimhe [trɔjə]
troimhpe [trɔihbə]
tromhainn [trɔ.ɪNʲ]
tromhaibh [trɔ.ɪv]
tromhpa [trɔ̃hbə]

Thar

thar [har]
thar an [har əN(ʲ)]
tharam [harəm]
tharad [harəd]
thairis air [harʲɪʃ ɛrʲ]
thairte [haRʃdʲə]
tharainn [harɪNʲ]
tharaibh [harɪv]
tharta [haRʃdə]

Personal pronouns

mi [mĩː] [mi]
thu
tu
[uː]
[duː]
[u]
[du]
e [ɛː] [ə]
i [iː] [i]
sinn [ʃiːNʲ] [ʃiNʲ]
sibh [ʃiːv] [ʃiv]
iad [iəd] [əd]

Personal pronouns with emphatic suffixes

mise [mĩʃə]
thusa
tusa
[usə]
[dusə]
esan [ɛsən]
ise [iʃə]
sinne [ʃiNʲə]
sibhse [ʃiːvʃə]
iadsan [iədsən]

Possessive pronoun

mo chù [mə'xuː]
do chù [də'xuː]
a chù [ə'xuː]
a cù [ə'kuː]
ar cù [ər'kuː]
ur cù [ər'kuː]
an cù [əŋ'kuː]

Possessive pronoun with emphatic suffixes

mo chù-sa [mə'xuːsə]
do chù-sa [də'xuːsə ]
a chù-san [ə'xuːsən]
a cù-se [ə'kuːʃə]
ar cù-ne [ər'kuːnə]
ur cù-se [ər'kuːʃə]
an cù-san [ən'kuːsən]

Possessive pronoun with initial vowel

m' anam [manam]
d' anam [danam]
anam [anam]
a h-anam [ə'hanam]
ar n-anam [ər'nanam]
ur n-anam [ər'nanam]
an anam [ə'nanam]

Possessive pronoun with initial vowel and emphatic suffixes

m' anam-sa [manamsə]
d' anam-sa [danamsə]
anam-san [anamsən]
a h-anam-se [ə'hanamʃə]
ar n-anam-ne [ər'nanamnə]
ur n-anam-se [ər'nanamʃə]
an anam-san [ə'nanamsən]



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