Diphthongs

O Goireasan Akerbeltz
Am mùthadh mar a bha e 00:00, 18 dhen Dùbhlachd 2011 le Akerbeltz (Deasbaireachd | mùthaidhean) (Created page with "Diphthongs are sequences of two vowels joined together to act as one (long) vowel sequence. There are approximately 9 diphthongs in Gaelic. We can divide these into two classes...")
(diofar) ← Mùthadh nas sine | Am mùthadh mu dheireadh (diofar) | Mùthadh nas ùire → (diofar)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Diphthongs are sequences of two vowels joined together to act as one (long) vowel sequence. There are approximately 9 diphthongs in Gaelic. We can divide these into two classes: (A) those which are spelled using two vowels, and (B) those which are spelled using a combination of vowels and consonants.

Type A

90px

[iə] from ia
[iəR] iarr demand!
[kʲiəL] ciall sense (n.)
[Lʲiə] liath grey (adj.)
[biəɣ] biadh food
[fiəɣ] fiadh deer
[iəRɪ] iarraidh wanting


ua [uə] pronounced like a long ù followed by an obscure vowel, like the vowel in <the> fuar fuəɾ gual g̊uəɫ̪ cluas kɫ̪uəs sguab sg̊uəb̊ tuagh t̪uəɣ duais d̪̊uəʃ buaidh b̊uəʝ


eu [ia] pronounced like a long ì followed by a clear [a] sound. (Note: not all eu vowels are pronounced as diphthongs, e.g. Seumas where eu is pronounced as a long é [eː] sound). beul b̊iaɫ̪ ceud kʲiad̪̊ feur fiaɾ geur g̊ʲiaɾ

Note: eum is usually pronounced as é [eː] leum ʎeːm ceum kʲeːm beum b̊eːm

Download dafhoghair02

TYPE (B) These diphthongs occur before ll, nn, m and also before the fricatives bh, mh, gh, dh (in which case the fricatives are often silent). ai [ai] similar to <y> in <my> caill kaiʎ saill saiʎ cainnt kaiɲtʲ dhaibh ɣaiv taibhse t̪aivʃɪ


ei [ei] like <ay> in <may> seinn ʃeiɲ beinn b̊eiɲ


oi/ei/ai [ɤi] similar to <y> in <my> but the first part of the diphthong does not exist in English. You can produce this sound by making an [o] and spreading your lips at the same time (as if you were grinning widely). moill mɤiʎ coilltean kɤiʎtʲən soillsich sɤiʎʃɪç loinn ɫ̪ɤiɲ broim b̊ɾɤim greim g̊ɾʲɤim saighdear sɤid̊ʲɛɾ maighdean

mɤid̊ʲən


ui/aoi [ɯi] like the last diphthong but the first part of the diphthong is like the unrounded form of [u]. Again, you can produce this sound by making an [u] and spreading your lips at the same time (as if you were grinning widely). NB: Some dialects pronounce this sound like [ɤ] cruinn kɾɯiɲ druim d̪̊ɾɯim suim sɯim tuill t̪ɯiʎ craoibh kɾɯiv naoimh n̴̪ɯiv laoigh ɫ̪ɯj mnaoi mɾɯ̃j


a/ea [au] Similar to <ow> in <how> cam kaum call kauɫ̪ ball b̊auɫ̪ ann aun̴̪ rann r̴aun̴̪ bann b̊aun̴̪ lampa ɫ̪aumpə samhradh sãũɾəɣ ceann kʲaun̴̪ peann pjaun̴̪ teann tʲaun̴̪ geall g̊ʲauɫ̪ geamhradh g̊ʲãũɾəɣ


o [ɔu] like <o> in Standard English <no> tom t̪ɔum com kɔum lom ɫ̪ɔum donn d̪̊ɔun̴̪ fonn fɔun̴̪ bonn b̊ɔun̴̪ sonn sɔun̴̪ toll t̪ɔuɫ̪ poll pɔuɫ̪

Summary chart of Scottish Gaelic diphthongs: TYPE (A) iə ia uə ua ia eu

TYPE (B) ai aill, ainn, aibh ei einn ɤi oill, oinn, oim ɯi uinn, uim, uill, aoi(bh/mh/gh) au (e)am, (e)ann, (e)all, (e)amh ɔu onn, om, oll