An diofar eadar na mùthaidhean a rinneadh air "Ball gazing genitives"

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(Chaidh duilleag le "Well, it's a little more sophisticated - an reliable - than ball gazing but there's always a margin of error. As with the page on Plurals shmurals and how to..." a chruthachadh)
 
(Best bets)
 
(Rinn an cleachdaiche 22 mùthadh eadar-mheadhanach nach eil 22 'gan sealltainn)
Loidhne 1: Loidhne 1:
Well, it's a little more sophisticated - an reliable - than ball gazing but there's always a margin of error. As with the page on [[Plurals shmurals and how to predict them|predicting plurals]] this is work in progress but someone asked for.
+
Well, it's a little more sophisticated - an reliable - than ball gazing but there's always a margin of error. As with the page on [[Plurals shmurals and how to predict them|predicting plurals]] and [[How to gender a noun|gendering nouns]] this is work in progress but someone asked for.
  
 
Again to quote Captain Barbossa, the following pointers are ''more like guidelines''. Genitives are hard to predict with certainty, but there are some things that can make life easier. Note also that some genitives vary by dialect.
 
Again to quote Captain Barbossa, the following pointers are ''more like guidelines''. Genitives are hard to predict with certainty, but there are some things that can make life easier. Note also that some genitives vary by dialect.
Loidhne 10: Loidhne 10:
 
Your best bets are special endings (in the nominative singular) which generally take specific genitives. These are the most reliable rules for predicting genitives and if a word has such an ending, you should go with the rules for that special ending in preference to more generic rules.
 
Your best bets are special endings (in the nominative singular) which generally take specific genitives. These are the most reliable rules for predicting genitives and if a word has such an ending, you should go with the rules for that special ending in preference to more generic rules.
  
===-ach===
+
===-air/-(e)adair/-(a)iche/-(e)ar===
With a masculine noun ending in <span style="color: #008000;">-ach</span>, the plural normally is <span style="color: #008000;">-aich</span>:
+
These are agentive endings. Bits that you stick onto another noun to show that someone makes or does something, like -er in English which gives you fish » fisher, wash » washer, clean » cleaner, and so on. Of these, only <span style="color: #008000;">-(e)ar</span> changes in the genitive, the others all stay the same:
 +
* <span style="color: #008000;">cruthaichear » cruthaich'''eir'''</span>
 +
* <span style="color: #008000;">ùghdar » ùghd'''air'''</span>
 +
* <span style="color: #008000;">saighdear » saighd'''eir'''</span>
 +
 
 +
Careful, this only works if the noun is made up of a noun plus an ending or a loanword. There are some feminine nouns which aren't "composed" like that which behave differently. As a general rule, if you take away the ending, and what you're left with doesn't make sense, then it's not one of these. For example, with <span style="color: #008000;">cathair</span> and <span style="color: #008000;">nathair</span>, if you remove the <span style="color: #008000;">-air</span>, you're left with <span style="color: #008000;">cath</span> and <span style="color: #008000;">nath</span> and which don't make sense because <span style="color: #008000;">cath</span> and <span style="color: #008000;">nath</span> don't mean anything on their own. So, it's not <span style="color: #008000;">nath+air</span>, but just one word. See the next section for more examples.
 +
 
 +
===-air and -ir===
 +
If the <span style="color: #008000;">-air</span> at the end is not the doer/maker ending, then the noun is usually feminine and syncopates its genitive. In short, syncopating means that you lose a syllable so the genitive is <span style="color: #008000;">-rach</span>:
 +
* <span style="color: #008000;">nathair » nath'''rach'''</span>
 +
* <span style="color: #008000;">acair » ac'''rach'''</span>
 +
* <span style="color: #008000;">litir » lit'''reach'''</span>
 +
 
 +
Two common exceptions are
 +
* <span style="color: #008000;">màthair » màth'''ar'''</span>
 +
* <span style="color: #008000;">piuthair » peath'''ar'''</span>
 +
 
 +
For a bit more on this topic, check [[Genitives in -(th)rach|this page]].
 +
 
 +
===-(e)ach===
 +
With a masculine noun ending in <span style="color: #008000;">-ach</span>, the genitive normally is <span style="color: #008000;">-aich</span>:
 
* <span style="color: #008000;">balach » bal'''aich'''</span>
 
* <span style="color: #008000;">balach » bal'''aich'''</span>
 
* <span style="color: #008000;">boireannach » boireann'''aich'''</span>
 
* <span style="color: #008000;">boireannach » boireann'''aich'''</span>
  
Watch out for some masculine nouns like <span style="color: #008000;">cladach</span> which break that pattern and have a plural like <span style="color: #008000;">clad'''aichean'''</span>. But on the whole, it's relatively safe to assume (bearing in mind the next paragraph applies) that a noun in <span style="color: #008000;">-ach</span> is a) masculine and b) will have an <span style="color: #008000;">-aich</span> plural.
+
Watch out for a relatively small number of feminine nouns which end in <span style="color: #008000;">-ach</span>, for example, <span style="color: #008000;">làrach</span>. On the bright side, their genitive is often <span style="color: #008000;">-aich</span> or at worst <span style="color: #008000;">-aiche</span> (which in Hebridean Gaelic gets reduced to <span style="color: #008000;">-aich</span> anyway...):
 
+
* <span style="color: #008000;">làrach » làr'''aich'''</span>
You must watch out for a small number of feminine nouns which end in <span style="color: #008000;">-ach</span>, for example, <span style="color: #008000;">làrach » làr'''aichean'''</span>. On the bright side, their plural forms are fairly regular so if you know the gender, it's fairly safe to go for <span style="color: #008000;">-aichean</span> if the noun is feminine:
+
* <span style="color: #008000;">gruagach » gruag'''aich(e)'''</span>
* <span style="color: #008000;">làrach » làr'''aichean'''</span>
 
* <span style="color: #008000;">gruagach » gruag'''aichean'''</span>
 
  
 
===-(e)achd===
 
===-(e)achd===
Ignoring the issue of gender for the moment... OK, fine, not ignoring the issue of gender. The rule of thumb is that words which end in <span style="color: #008000;">-(e)achd</span> which are one syllable long (e.g. <span style="color: #008000;">achd, smachd</span>...) tend to be masculine. Those which are two or more syllables long are mainly all feminine (e.g. <span style="color: #008000;">mòrachd, Gàidhealtachd</span>...).
+
Ignore gender with this ending as far as genitive marking goes. They don't change these days:
 
+
* <span style="color: #008000;">achd » achd</span>
On the bright side, they all take <<span style="color: #008000;">-an</span> as their plural:
+
* <span style="color: #008000;">feachd » feachd</span>
* <span style="color: #008000;">achd » achd'''an'''</span>
+
* <span style="color: #008000;">éifeachd » éifeachd</span>
* <span style="color: #008000;">feachd » feachd'''an'''</span>
 
* <span style="color: #008000;">éifeachd » éifeachd'''an'''</span>
 
 
 
===-(e)adh and -idh===
 
These are nice. They're mainly all masculine and virtually all take <span style="color: #008000;">-(a)idhean</span> as a plural if the word consists of noun + <span style="color: #008000;">adh</span>, meaning that they must have two syllables, at least:
 
* <span style="color: #008000;">atharrachadh » atharrach'''aidhean'''</span>
 
* <span style="color: #008000;">moladh » mol'''aidhean'''</span>
 
  
Irrespective of their gender, although most are masculine, words ending in <span style="color: #008000;">-idh</span> also behave like that:
+
===-(e)adh===
* <span style="color: #008000;">ainmhidh » ainmhidh'''ean'''</span>
+
These are nice. They're almost all masculine and virtually all take <span style="color: #008000;">-(a)idh</span> as the genitive if the word consists of noun + <span style="color: #008000;">adh</span>, meaning that they must have two syllables, at least:
* <span style="color: #008000;">aghaidh » aghaidh'''ean'''</span>
+
* <span style="color: #008000;">atharrachadh » atharrach'''aidh'''</span>
* <span style="color: #008000;">bàillidh » bàillidh'''ean'''</span>
+
* <span style="color: #008000;">moladh » mol'''aidh'''</span>
  
 
===-(e)ag===
 
===-(e)ag===
If you have a feminine noun with the diminutive ending <span style="color: #008000;">-(e)ag</span>, then the plural will always be <span style="color: #008000;">-an</span>:
+
If you have a feminine noun with the diminutive ending <span style="color: #008000;">-(e)ag</span>, then the genitive will be <span style="color: #008000;">-eige</span>:
* <span style="color: #008000;">caileag » caileag'''an'''</span>
+
* <span style="color: #008000;">caileag » cail'''eige'''</span>
* <span style="color: #008000;">marag » marag'''an'''</span>
+
* <span style="color: #008000;">marag » mar'''aige'''</span>
* <span style="color: #008000;">cuileag » cuileag'''an'''</span>
+
* <span style="color: #008000;">cuileag » cuil'''aige'''</span>
  
Careful, there are some masculine nouns which look like they have a diminutive ending <span style="color: #008000;">-(e)ag</span> at the end, in particular <span style="color: #008000;">aiseag</span>, but that's not a diminutive ending. Usually, the plural is still <span style="color: #008000;">-(e)an</span> (<span style="color: #008000;">» aiseag'''an'''</span>) but the other case markings will obviously be different, so you have feminine <span style="color: #008000;">a' chaileag, air a' chaileig, aois na caileige</span> versus masculine <span style="color: #008000;">an t-aiseag, air an aiseag, aois an aiseig</span>.
+
Careful, there are some masculine nouns which look like they have a diminutive ending <span style="color: #008000;">-(e)ag</span> at the end, in particular <span style="color: #008000;">aiseag</span>, but that's not a diminutive ending. Usually, the genitive is close though: <span style="color: #008000;">-eig</span> (<span style="color: #008000;">» ais'''eig'''</span>).
  
 
===-eal===
 
===-eal===
Also fairly predictably, words ending in <span style="color: #008000;">-eal</span> add <span style="color: #008000;">-an</span> for the plural:
+
Also fairly predictably, words ending in <span style="color: #008000;">-eal</span> turn to <span style="color: #008000;">-eil</span> in the genitive:
* <span style="color: #008000;">caisteal » caisteal'''an'''</span>
+
* <span style="color: #008000;">caisteal » caist'''eil'''</span>
* <span style="color: #008000;">inneal » inneal'''an'''</span>
+
* <span style="color: #008000;">inneal » inn'''eil'''</span>
 
 
As usual, there are exceptions, most notably perhaps <span style="color: #008000;">aingeal</span> which changes to <span style="color: #008000;">ainglean</span>.
 
 
 
===-air/-(e)adair/-(a)iche/-(e)ar===
 
These are agentive endings. Bits that you stick onto another noun to show that someone makes or does something, like -er in English which gives you fish » fisher, wash » washer, clean » cleaner, and so on. The plural of these is almost invariably <span style="color: #008000;">-(e)an</span>:
 
* <span style="color: #008000;">iasg » iasgair » iasgair'''ean'''</span>
 
* <span style="color: #008000;">clach » clachair » clachair'''ean'''</span>
 
* <span style="color: #008000;">saighdear » saighdear'''an'''</span>
 
* <span style="color: #008000;">cluich » cluicheadair » cluicheadair'''ean'''</span>
 
* <span style="color: #008000;">mara » maraiche » maraiche'''an'''</span>
 
 
 
Careful, this only works if the noun is made up of a noun plus an ending. There are some feminine nouns which aren't "composed" like that which behave differently. As a general rule, if you take away the ending, and what you're left with doesn't make sense, then it's not one of these. For example, with <span style="color: #008000;">cathair</span> and <span style="color: #008000;">nathair</span>, if you remove the <span style="color: #008000;">-air</span>, you're left with <span style="color: #008000;">cath</span> and <span style="color: #008000;">nath</span> and which don't make sense because <span style="color: #008000;">cath</span> and <span style="color: #008000;">nath</span> don't mean anything on their own. So, it's not <span style="color: #008000;">nath+air</span>, but just one word. See the next section for more examples.
 
 
 
===-air and -ir===
 
If the <span style="color: #008000;">-air</span> at the end is not the doer/maker ending, then the noun is usually feminine and syncopates its plural. I'll explain that some other time, in detail. In short, syncopating means that you lose a syllable so the plural is <span style="color: #008000;">-raichean</span>:
 
* <span style="color: #008000;">nathair » nath'''raichean'''</span>
 
* <span style="color: #008000;">màthair » màth'''raichean'''</span>
 
* <span style="color: #008000;">acair » ac'''raichean'''</span>
 
* <span style="color: #008000;">litir » lit'''richean'''</span>
 
  
 
===-(e)an===
 
===-(e)an===
If you have a masculine noun ending in the diminutive ending <span style="color: #008000;">-(e)an</span>, then plurals are normally restricted to either <span style="color: #008000;">-ain/-ein</span> or <span style="color: #008000;">-an</span>. Those are hard to predict, but if in doubt, you're usually better going with <span style="color: #008000;">-an</span>.
+
If you have a masculine noun ending in the diminutive ending <span style="color: #008000;">-(e)an</span>, then the genitive is normally <span style="color: #008000;">-ain/-ein</span>.
  
Type 1
 
 
* <span style="color: #008000;">balachan » balach'''ain'''</span>
 
* <span style="color: #008000;">balachan » balach'''ain'''</span>
 
* <span style="color: #008000;">corran » corr'''ain'''</span>
 
* <span style="color: #008000;">corran » corr'''ain'''</span>
 
* <span style="color: #008000;">cuman » cum'''ain'''</span>
 
* <span style="color: #008000;">cuman » cum'''ain'''</span>
 +
* <span style="color: #008000;">cuilean » cuil'''ein'''</span>
 +
* <span style="color: #008000;">ballan » ball'''ain'''</span>
  
Type 2
+
===-(e)as===
* <span style="color: #008000;">cuilean » cuilean'''an'''</span>
+
These are nice. Almost all are masculine and are <span style="color: #008000;">-(e)is</span> as the genitive:
* <span style="color: #008000;">ballan » ballan'''an'''</span>
+
* <span style="color: #008000;">solas » sol'''ais'''</span>
 +
* <span style="color: #008000;">carthannas » carthann'''ais'''</span>
 +
* <span style="color: #008000;">doras » dor'''ais'''</span>
  
===-(e)as===
+
===-oc===
These are nice. Almost all take <span style="color: #008000;">-an</span> as the plural:
+
This seems an exotic rule but there are actually many words in this category and something slightly weird happens, so it's useful to know. If a word with one syllable ends in <span style="color: #008000;">-oc</span> then the genitive will be <span style="color: #008000;">-uic</span>:
* <span style="color: #008000;">solas » solas'''an'''</span>
+
* <span style="color: #008000;">cnoc » cn'''uic'''</span>
* <span style="color: #008000;">carthannas » carthannas'''an'''</span>
+
* <span style="color: #008000;">broc » br'''uic'''</span>
The fly in the ointment is <span style="color: #008000;">doras</span> which is usually <span style="color: #008000;">dorsan</span> in the plural.
+
* <span style="color: #008000;">sloc » sl'''uic'''</span>
  
 
===-th===
 
===-th===
Let's say there's a tendency for words ending in <span style="color: #008000;">-th</span> to have <span style="color: #008000;">-an</span> as a plural:
+
Let's say there's a tendency for words ending in <span style="color: #008000;">-th</span> to have <span style="color: #008000;">-a</span> as a plural:
* <span style="color: #008000;">guth » guth'''an'''</span>
+
* <span style="color: #008000;">guth » guth'''a'''</span>
* <span style="color: #008000;">gath » gath'''an'''</span>
+
* <span style="color: #008000;">gath » gath'''a'''</span>
* <span style="color: #008000;">gaoth » gaoth'''an'''</span>
+
* <span style="color: #008000;">bùth » bùth'''a'''</span>
  
<span style="color: #008000;">Bùth</span> can take <span style="color: #008000;">bùthan</span> as the plural but <span style="color: #008000;">bùithtean</span> is more common.
+
There is a fair number of flies in the ointment, like <span style="color: #008000;">gaoth » gao'''ithe'''</span>
  
==Being exclusive==
+
=Less reliable stuff=
If the noun in question is sipping Singapore Sling, you need to step away from the screen, take a deep breath and do something else for a while. OK, OK. What I meant to say is that some plurals can be excluded on the basis of gender. For example, almost all nouns which slenderise for plural (e.g. <span style="color: #008000;">balach » balaich, bòrd » bùird</span>) are masculine. So, if you have a noun and you're pretty sure it's feminine, then in almost all cases you must stick an ending on to show the plural.
 
  
 
==Loans==
 
==Loans==
A lot of loanwords go for <span style="color: #008000;">-(a)ichean</span> in the plural:
+
A lot of loanwords don't do genitive marking at all:
* <span style="color: #008000;">càr » càr'''aichean'''</span>
+
* <span style="color: #008000;">càr » càr</span>
* <span style="color: #008000;">bàr » bàr'''aichean'''</span>
+
* <span style="color: #008000;">bàr » bàr</span>
* <span style="color: #008000;">clas » clas'''aichean'''</span>
+
* <span style="color: #008000;">clas » clas</span>
 +
* <span style="color: #008000;">bus » bus</span>
  
==Short and sweet==
+
==Monosyllables with ia and eu ==
The other "pointer" is that nouns which do something really bizarre to the vowel (like <span style="color: #008000;">bòrd » bùird</span>) are a) all masculine and b) only one syllable long. So, a word like òran cannot have a plural that looks like ùirean or something like that. It's kinda obvious once you've realized this but it can help you cut down the number of options.
+
If you have a word with only one syllable and the vowel is <span style="color: #008000;">-ia-</span> or <span style="color: #008000;">-eu-</span> the the genitive is very often <span style="color: #008000;">-éi-</span>, with feminine nouns also slapping on the final <span style="color: #008000;">-e</span>
* <span style="color: #008000;">ceann » cinn</span>
+
* <span style="color: #008000;">ceum » céim</span>
* <span style="color: #008000;">cat » cait</span>
 
 
* <span style="color: #008000;">fiadh » féidh</span>
 
* <span style="color: #008000;">fiadh » féidh</span>
* <span style="color: #008000;">ball » buill</span>
+
* <span style="color: #008000;">fiach » féich</span>
 +
* <span style="color: #008000;">grian » gréine</span>
 +
 
 +
==Monosyllables with long vowels ==
 +
If you have a word with only one syllable and the vowel is long, then the genitive very often does something weird to the vowel.
 +
 
 +
Long <span style="color: #008000;">-(e)ò-</span> is semi-reliably <span style="color: #008000;">-(i)ùi-</span> in the genitive:
 +
* <span style="color: #008000;">bòrd » bùird</span>
 +
* <span style="color: #008000;">ceòl » ciùil</span>
 +
 
 +
With others, it's less predictable (e.g. <span style="color: #008000;">ceàrd » ciùird</span> or <span style="color: #008000;">càrn » cùirn</span>) but even just knowing to expect this weird stuff in this category of noun can help a bit.
 +
 
 +
==When all else fails...==
 +
Unfortunately this rule is often taught first, rather than last... Only apply this when none of the above applies, no shortcuts!!!
 +
 
 +
If the ending in the nominative is broad, the genitive will have a tendency to slenderise it, irrespective of gender, with feminine nouns tending to slap on a final <span style="color: #008000;">-e</span> but not always.
  
 
<br />
 
<br />
 
<br />
 
<br />
 
{{BeaganGramair}}
 
{{BeaganGramair}}

Am mùthadh mu dheireadh on 19:45, 29 dhen Iuchar 2019

Well, it's a little more sophisticated - an reliable - than ball gazing but there's always a margin of error. As with the page on predicting plurals and gendering nouns this is work in progress but someone asked for.

Again to quote Captain Barbossa, the following pointers are more like guidelines. Genitives are hard to predict with certainty, but there are some things that can make life easier. Note also that some genitives vary by dialect.

As with plurals, if anyone starts talking at you about first declension, second declension, and so on, just nod politely and - unless you're aiming for a degree in historical linguistics - run. Though technically useful, working off the basis of these old categories requires in-depth knowledge of Old Irish... see what I mean?

As with plurals, irregular nouns are just that, irregular, so you need to learn those. The ones you should learn off as soon as possible are: athair, bean, bó, bràthair, brù, cù, deoch, Dia, druim, duine, Éirinn, fear, fuil, leabaidh, mac, muir, piuthar, sgian, taigh, talamh. There are lots more, but those will do for starters.

Best bets

Your best bets are special endings (in the nominative singular) which generally take specific genitives. These are the most reliable rules for predicting genitives and if a word has such an ending, you should go with the rules for that special ending in preference to more generic rules.

-air/-(e)adair/-(a)iche/-(e)ar

These are agentive endings. Bits that you stick onto another noun to show that someone makes or does something, like -er in English which gives you fish » fisher, wash » washer, clean » cleaner, and so on. Of these, only -(e)ar changes in the genitive, the others all stay the same:

  • cruthaichear » cruthaicheir
  • ùghdar » ùghdair
  • saighdear » saighdeir

Careful, this only works if the noun is made up of a noun plus an ending or a loanword. There are some feminine nouns which aren't "composed" like that which behave differently. As a general rule, if you take away the ending, and what you're left with doesn't make sense, then it's not one of these. For example, with cathair and nathair, if you remove the -air, you're left with cath and nath and which don't make sense because cath and nath don't mean anything on their own. So, it's not nath+air, but just one word. See the next section for more examples.

-air and -ir

If the -air at the end is not the doer/maker ending, then the noun is usually feminine and syncopates its genitive. In short, syncopating means that you lose a syllable so the genitive is -rach:

  • nathair » nathrach
  • acair » acrach
  • litir » litreach

Two common exceptions are

  • màthair » màthar
  • piuthair » peathar

For a bit more on this topic, check this page.

-(e)ach

With a masculine noun ending in -ach, the genitive normally is -aich:

  • balach » balaich
  • boireannach » boireannaich

Watch out for a relatively small number of feminine nouns which end in -ach, for example, làrach. On the bright side, their genitive is often -aich or at worst -aiche (which in Hebridean Gaelic gets reduced to -aich anyway...):

  • làrach » làraich
  • gruagach » gruagaich(e)

-(e)achd

Ignore gender with this ending as far as genitive marking goes. They don't change these days:

  • achd » achd
  • feachd » feachd
  • éifeachd » éifeachd

-(e)adh

These are nice. They're almost all masculine and virtually all take -(a)idh as the genitive if the word consists of noun + adh, meaning that they must have two syllables, at least:

  • atharrachadh » atharrachaidh
  • moladh » molaidh

-(e)ag

If you have a feminine noun with the diminutive ending -(e)ag, then the genitive will be -eige:

  • caileag » caileige
  • marag » maraige
  • cuileag » cuilaige

Careful, there are some masculine nouns which look like they have a diminutive ending -(e)ag at the end, in particular aiseag, but that's not a diminutive ending. Usually, the genitive is close though: -eig (» aiseig).

-eal

Also fairly predictably, words ending in -eal turn to -eil in the genitive:

  • caisteal » caisteil
  • inneal » inneil

-(e)an

If you have a masculine noun ending in the diminutive ending -(e)an, then the genitive is normally -ain/-ein.

  • balachan » balachain
  • corran » corrain
  • cuman » cumain
  • cuilean » cuilein
  • ballan » ballain

-(e)as

These are nice. Almost all are masculine and are -(e)is as the genitive:

  • solas » solais
  • carthannas » carthannais
  • doras » dorais

-oc

This seems an exotic rule but there are actually many words in this category and something slightly weird happens, so it's useful to know. If a word with one syllable ends in -oc then the genitive will be -uic:

  • cnoc » cnuic
  • broc » bruic
  • sloc » sluic

-th

Let's say there's a tendency for words ending in -th to have -a as a plural:

  • guth » gutha
  • gath » gatha
  • bùth » bùtha

There is a fair number of flies in the ointment, like gaoth » gaoithe

Less reliable stuff

Loans

A lot of loanwords don't do genitive marking at all:

  • càr » càr
  • bàr » bàr
  • clas » clas
  • bus » bus

Monosyllables with ia and eu

If you have a word with only one syllable and the vowel is -ia- or -eu- the the genitive is very often -éi-, with feminine nouns also slapping on the final -e

  • ceum » céim
  • fiadh » féidh
  • fiach » féich
  • grian » gréine

Monosyllables with long vowels

If you have a word with only one syllable and the vowel is long, then the genitive very often does something weird to the vowel.

Long -(e)ò- is semi-reliably -(i)ùi- in the genitive:

  • bòrd » bùird
  • ceòl » ciùil

With others, it's less predictable (e.g. ceàrd » ciùird or càrn » cùirn) but even just knowing to expect this weird stuff in this category of noun can help a bit.

When all else fails...

Unfortunately this rule is often taught first, rather than last... Only apply this when none of the above applies, no shortcuts!!!

If the ending in the nominative is broad, the genitive will have a tendency to slenderise it, irrespective of gender, with feminine nouns tending to slap on a final -e but not always.



Beagan gràmair
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